1. Ms. Shaffer’s thesis is that Southernization has many lasting effects on Southern Asia and is a complex process otherwise unknown to most. 2. By “southernization” she means the intricate process that spread culture, trade, and ideas throughout Southern Asia. 3. “South” is defined as Southern Asia including China, India, and the Islamic Empires. 4. She associates the spread of Buddhism, mathematics (including advanced mathematics and Indian numeral), the beginning of crops such as a variety of rice and sugar, cotton and other textiles, the development of sailing techniques that allowed Southern Asia to come in contact with civilizations in it, and and the discovery of new sources of gold and trade of said gold, with “Southernization.”5. The spread of Buddhism, the development of new sailing techniques, and the growing of sugar and rice is associated with China, the growing of crops and creation of textiles is associated with India, and the contributions to advanced math such as algebra and geometry and the discovery of new sources of gold is associated with Islamic Empires.6. Indians, Malays, Chinese, and Arabs contributed to hemispheric development through their advancing trade, development of new sailing techniques, and the spread of their ideas and culture throughout the world. India was responsible for helping develop the cloth and textile industry, China helped spread Buddhism and create gunpowder as well as growing new kinds of rice, Malays’s sailors were responsible for delivering many goods, and Arabs helped with growing many new crops and discovering new gold. 7. Arabs and Mongols helped spread Southernization, playing a very important role. Arabs helped to create and spread many new crops while the mongols conquered much of Southeast Asia and expanded their in-land trade.8. She means that European’s did not have access to the same resources including sugar, rice, and cotton until they acquired tropical colonies, so they could only partly participate in the Southernization process until they acquired the colonies. 9. I agree with her thesis because the information she gave supported her thesis. She included evidence that discussed the effects and contributions civilizations in Southern Asia made to the process.