1. Introduction Field excursions provide opportunities for students


Field excursions provide
opportunities for students to observe and explore new things in the real world and
plays an important role in learning and sharing experience. As part of the learning experience under the selected topic module
in the second semester, the field trip was organized for the Tropical Forestry
master degree students for a period of one week with effect from 24th to
29th April 2017. The main aim of the field excursion was to get the
first insight into forest landscape restoration (FLR) programs in diverse
environmental and social setting. The field trip was well-designed and well-planned by
our course moderator, Assistant Professor Damrong Pipatwattanakul (Ph. D), Kasetsart University,
Bangkok, Thailand. An itinerary was framed in an integrated manner that offered
us tremendous learning potential on FLR principles and management strategies
applied in multifaceted landscapes from the mountainous landscape of Khaoyai
National Park to the coastal mangrove areas of Thailand.

FLR is generally applied to improve ecological integrity and
human well-being in the deforested and degraded areas, with an aim to enrich local
ecosystem functions (McCracken, 2007). The
main focus of FLR in Thailand is to revive ecological and economic output of
natural forest ecosystem without causing any detrimental effect in the process
of conversion, while
also contributing socio-economic benefits to local communities. Restoration programs cover entire landscapes and integrate mosaic
land uses including protected areas, biological corridors, regeneration
forests, other natural ecosystems such as agroforestry, agriculture, improved
agricultural fallows, plantations, riparian strips, etc. Our field observations
indicated that FLR activities in Thailand provided ecological, social and
economic benefits in the specific area of degraded and deforested lands. Therefore,
understanding social, legal and institutional contexts is inevitable for the formulation
of enabling strategies and successful implementation of FLR programs at the
national, regional and local level.

This report contains a separate description for each place of
visit as per the field program (Appendix 1) that includes a visit to Cellox paper
factory at Prachin Buri Province, Khaoyai National Park, Hornbill project site,
Khao Hin Sorn Development Study Centre at Panom Srakarm District, Chachoengsao
Province, Agroforestry Research Centre and Provincial Office for Natural
Resource and Environment and Mangrove forest areas at Trat Province. The report
follows a similar structure for each program, which begins with a brief
background description followed by our pertinent observations on management
interventions and strategies, with the discussion on critical issues and identification
of potential opportunities in some areas.


Since the main focus of selected topic module was
broadly on forest landscape restoration programs, the objectives were designed as

To explore relevant, applicable and realistic
restoration intervention types across various forest landscapes.
Assess the management strategies adopted
for various forest landscape restoration programs in diverse environmental
and social setting.
Analyse forest landscape restoration issues
and identify potential opportunities.




3.1   Cellox Paper Factory



Berli Jucker Cellox (BJC) factory is located in Prachin Buri Province, about 100 Km in the North-East
of Bangkok. The manufacturing plant was established in 1987 and belongs to TCC
(Thailand Covenant Church) group of Thailand. The factory covers a total area of 94
Rai (approx. 5.04 hectares). BJC is recognized for its leading marketing, sales and distribution systems in
Thailand and in Asia. BJC
paper plant produces toilet and facial tissues, kitchen towels and table
napkins branded by names such as Cellox, Zilk and Maxmo. These manufactured
products are supplied through major retailers like Makro, Lotus and Tops in
Thailand. The plant has an annual capacity of producing 25,000 tons per annum.

The company has a long-term vision to provide integrated
supply chain solution in the region, provide top quality products and provide
best services to the people. The primary mission of the company is to deliver high-quality
products and provide dedicated services to the customers. In the context of
organization structure, the company has highly experienced and respectful
management team with single-mindedness to further expand the performance of the
company. The staffing pattern is well-organized with the inclusion of harmonious
corporate values and culture that form an ideal workplace to drive change,
maximize business opportunities and stride towards excellence.

3.1.2  Raw

 The primary source of raw materials for the Cellox
factory is fibre pulps obtained from eucalyptus trees. The raw materials, both
short and long fibre pulps are imported from US, New Zealand, Canada, Chile,
Brazil, Sweden, Indonesia and the Czech Republic. About 100 tons of raw
materials are consumed by the factory in a day. The factory also uses fibre
recovery plant to recycle and produce quality tissue paper from used office
papers through De-inking Process (DIP) that produces multiple products
including pure virgin pulp tissue paper to pure re-cycled pulp tissue-paper.


Although, Thailand possesses huge
forest resources including eucalyptus and acacia plantations, however, the majority
of fibre inputs or wood pulps are imported, rather than meeting from domestic
sources. The imports of raw material is an issue because of global presence in
supply chains. The global nature of supply means that traceability in identity,
safety and suitability of products becomes opaque, due to several sources,
traders and middlemen. Further, in order to ensure suppliers meet
the required standards and specifications, raw materials are required to be tested through expert inspection. Identification process entails testing of
chemical, microbiological, mechanical and physical properties. This escalates the
operational costs and consumers are likely to be affected by the market prices.
On other hand, farmers will lose interests to take up tree plantations producing
pulps, which may have the direct impact on the national interest of increasing the
forest cover area. Therefore, government and policy maker’s needs to reform
taxation policies and system that those imported products are levied heavy taxes
to encourage the use of available domestic resources. The internal supply chain
can be intensified through expansion of marketing outlets and providing good
incentives to raw material producers. 


3.1.3  Economic benefits

With the total production capacity of 25,000
tons per annum, the Cellox factory provides a substantial number of well-paying
jobs to the provincial workforce. The company has more than 12,000 employees
engaged in several supply chains such as packaging, consumer, healthcare and
technical, modern retail, business partner group, etc. In 2016, the company has
paid a total remuneration of about 9607.7 million baht including salaries,
bonuses, provident fund and other welfare payments (BJC, 2016). In terms of revenue generation, the company
has generated a total amount of about 120,741.61
Thai baht as of 3rd quarter of 2017 fiscal current year (http://investor.bjc.co.th/financial_highlights.html, assessed on 8th January 2018) from the sale of goods and rendering of services. The total income
tax expense was 576.482 million baht as of 30th September 2017, which indicate a significant contribution to the national
revenue and benefits to the local communities in terms of both economic and
social development.

Management of wastewater and

During the process of pulping, many types of solid
wastes and sludge are generated. Solid wastes are largely produced from
pulping, deinking processes and wastewater treatment. Two types of sludge are
generated in the factory while pulping, papermaking and deinking namely
wastewater treatment sludge and deinking sludge.

The company has onsite wastewater treatment sludge, which is treated in
two stages. The primary treatment is done in the first pond through
sedimentation or floating method, where suspended solids are removed to
wastewater treatment sludge. The secondary treatment is done through biological
treatment (in aerobic or anaerobic conditions), where soluble organic compounds
are converted to carbon dioxide, water and biomass by microorganisms present in
aerobic sludge. The surplus biomass gets settled, which is separated in the
secondary clarifier (settling tanks) and are recycled back to the pulping process. Based on our observations, some actions from the
company are recommended:

Since the company is facing the grave challenge on
energy price, exploring the use of the alternate source of energy such as solar
or windmills is recommended.

An amount of waste generated can be reduced with efficient energy use, efficient production process
and improved wastewater treatment technologies.

Since the deinking sludge has high ash content
(Bajpai, 2015), the company can explore further on the utility of sludge
products for conversion into fertilizers.

Secondary sledge (biological sludge) with high
microbial protein content (organic compounds) that gets settled in clarifier
(settling tanks) can be explored for application to agricultural land as soil-improving
organic fertilizers, after removing chlorinated organic compounds
(organo-halogens), which is highly toxic to both flora and fauna (Deviatkin, 2013).

Secondary sludge can be also incinerated in boilers (Deviatkin, 2013), but
due to very less solid contents, the steam generation capacity of a boiler can
be reduced, which may result in operational problems.

If a strict environmental regulation is applied, the company may need to
install another treatment sludge as tertiary sludge, where unresolved sludge
treatment products from the first and second process can be further applied to one
mixture together.


3.1.3   Human resource management


The company has a set of human resources
development policies to support, upgrade abilities and knowledge of employees by
providing career opportunities, developing succession plans for key positions
and developing leadership skills. Realizing the importance of knowledge and
capacities to boost human resource potential, the company follows annual
training roadmap that includes classroom training, action-based learning, learning
from experts and online learning. The programs cover all levels of employees
that each has an opportunity to attain training at an average of twenty hours
per person.


The company also provides training programs
on safety, occupational health, working environment and code of conduct. The company
has developed corporate social and environmental responsibility (CSER) to improve
the quality of life, society and education. Through CSER programs, school
infrastructures are developed, teachers are rewarded, and poor students are
provided with scholarships. The company follow strictly the labour law and do
not employ under-age labourers. There is an overtime limitation to work for
employees. Labourers are provided with doctors and nurses for time to time
physical check-ups. In order to create a safe workplace for employees, visitors
and safeguard assets and resources of the company, programs on fire protection,
fire extinguishers and fire evacuation are conducted. The company also supports
potential disabled people to work from their own place of living. For the
smooth compliance monitoring, both internal and external auditing system is in
place. The company has a policy of reward system for the competitive employees
with the annual bonus based on performance. Thus, above activities indicated
that the company has a strong human resource policy and corporate social
responsibility in-built in the programs, which has benefited the society at

3.1.6  Quality control and

The company produces varieties of
household health and hygiene papers such as toilet paper, facial tissue, napkin
and other multi-purpose paper as per customer’s need. The
company is approved by the government to use a green label on their products
with branded names such as Cellox, Zilk, Maxmo, Belle and Deluxsoft (Fig. 1). The products are certified by ISO19001,
ISO14001 and ISO18001 through rectification from Thai
Standard Industrial Classification (TSIC). The ISO19001 is certified
based on total quality management (TQM) that standardizes
working processes and encourage quality production (Intarajinda et al. 2011). The ISO14001 is certified
based on environmental management system (EMS) that provides structure for
measuring and improving organization’s environmental impacts (Ibid). The ISO18001 is
certified based on occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS)
that provides a system for measuring and improving organization’s health and safety impacts (Ibid). In order to meet
certification standards, an emphasis on managing organization’s impact on the
external environment is done to reduce pollution
and comply environmental regulations. The company also focuses on managing organization’s internal environment to ensure TQM and safe

With a strong commitment to increasing quality, the company has
expanded its tissue market both inside in-country and abroad through advanced
equipment, technology and systematic production strategies. The cellox products
are also designed and manufactured in taking into account the customers
preferences and needs closely from varied sizes, lengths, perforated marks,
fragrances to different patterns.