some Internet research on Chevron’s use of seismic imaging technology. Briefly
explain how it works and how it has helped Chevron discover new oil and gas
A) Seis??mic ??im??agi??ng ??is a??n
instru??ment that ric??ochets sound waves off underground shake structures to
uncover conceivable unrefined oil– and common gas– bearing arrangements.
ultrasensitive gadgets ca??l??led geoph??ones to record the sound waves?? as
they?? reverberate inside the earth. By concentrate the echoes, oil geologists
look to figure the profundity and str??uctures of covered geologic
developments. This examination may enable them to distinguish oil-and
gas-bearing supplies covered up underneath the world’s surface.
Refined 3-D imaging makes top
??notch pictures of subsurface geography. The out??come is lik??e a X-be??am??
outp??ut or?? medicinal sonogram th??at spreads a great many square m??iles ??and
expands 10 miles (16 km) or more into the earth. Programming to dissect these
pictures keeps on enhancing, and further developed PC??s now empower
re??earchers to analyze the informat??i??on ????ins??id??e da??ys instead of
months, ??speeding the reve??lation a??nd e??xtreme ??generation of oil?? and??
gas.?? Rec??ord??ing ??vario??us 3-D?? revi??ews at ??various
??circ??ums??tan??ces produces time slip by, or 4-??data.
The pictures demonstrate a
repository ??at vari??ous phases of consumption, permitting oil designers to
enhance recuperation and deliver effe??ctively.
Chevron’s restrictive seismic
imaging innovation helped the organization accomplish an investigation
disclosure rate of 66 percent in 2014. This innovation enables Chevron
researchers to see underneath the world’s surface more obviously and precisely
than any time in recent memory. Utilizing these exclusive apparatuses,
specialists have possessed the capacity to discover critical oil and petroleum
gas stores in progressively difficult zones. In 1982, Chevron wound up
noticeably one of the principal vitality organizations to utili??ze a
supercomputer and immediately received further developed parallel PCs that
enhanced seismic outcomes and lessened expe??nses exponentially. After fifteen
years, chevron presented the bus??ses fundamentally. From that point forward,
Chevron has kept on expanding upon this ability, always putting resources into
perpetually intense PCs as they end up plain????ly accessible, to em??power
sp????eedi??e?? and bet??ter examin??ation.
some Internet research on security vulnerabilities associated with SCADA and
digital industrial control systems. Summarize the major security concerns
associated with these systems and steps than can be taken to enhance their
A) Most o??f
the SCADA systems are vulnerable to cyber at????tacks due to the following
1) Lack of
2) Slow Updates
3) Lack ??of
knowledge about the ??dev????ices
SCADA frameworks are not the same as general data frameworks
as far as security administration. In the hazard and security administration of
general data frameworks, in the wake of dissecting the advantages, dangers, and
vulnerabilities of data frameworks and ascertaining the degrees of a hazard,
safety efforts are organized for figuring the rest of the hazard.
Conversely, for SCADA frameworks,
the examination of the benefits is performed not from the perspective of
frameworks but rather from the perspective of target offices oversaw and
Before, when SCADA fra????meworks
were autonomous and merchant controlled frameworks without any associations with
different frameworks and when the system convention was exclusive, just a
couple of individuals, for example, engineers and programmers, knew about the
presence of SCADA establishments. In any case, the present SCADA frameworks are
generally dispersed and organized. Since the frameworks are subject to open
conventions for the web, they are helpless against outside remote digital
The following steps concentates on actions to be taken to
increase security for SCADA systems:
every connection to SCADA networks.
superfluous connections with the SCADA networks.
and reinforce the security of any remaining connections to SCADA network
SCADA networks by removing or disabling unnecessary services.
5) Do not
rely on proprietary protocols to protect your system
the security features provided by device a????????????????????????????nd system
strong controls over any medium that is used as a backdoor into the SCADA
8) Implement internal and external
intrusion detection systems and establish 24-hour-a-day incident monitoring.
9) Perform tech??nical aud??its of
SCA??DA dev??ices and?? netw??orks, and?? a??ny?? ot??her conn??ected
netwo??rks, ??to ident??ify sec??urity conc??erns.
10) Con??duct ph??ysica??l?? secu??rity
survey??s and??asses??s al??l remot??e sit??es connec??ted to the S??CADA
netwo??rk ??to eval??uate t??heir secu??rity.
SCADA “Red Tea??ms” to identi??fy and evaluat??e pos??sible a??ttack sce??narios
12) Clear??ly define cyber securit??y
roles, respon??sibilit??ies, and?? autho??rities ??for ma????nagers, syste??m
admin????is??trat??ors, a??nd u??sers
13) Document netwo??rk arc??hitec??ture and
ide??ntify sys??tems t??hat serve crit??ical f??unctions ??or contain
sensitiv??e information t????hat req??uire addit??ional?? level??s of
14) Establish a
rigorous??, ongoing ??risk management process
a network?? protection strategy based ??on the principle of defense-in-depth
system back??ups and ??disaster recovery plans.
the pros and cons of moving enterprise-wide applications that have
traditionally been supported on premises to the cloud.
Pros of Cloud Computing:
I??T costs: This i??s presumabl??y the absolu??te most convincing motivation
behin??d why o??rganizati??ons mo??ve their sys??tem (all o??r to some
d??egree) to the cloud. Not ??exclu??sivel??y ??do you spare cash on
programming licenses, however on equipment (ser??vers and wo??kstations) and in
addition on IT support and updates. So in the event that you abhor always
composin??g ??come depleting checks for IT updates, you’ll truly need to
investigate distributed computing.
B) Ability to
access your desktop and additionally applications from anyplace and any gadget:
In the event that you travel a considerable measure, have telecommuters or want
to utilize an iPad while voyaging and a tablet at your home, distributed
computing will give you the capacity to work fro??m any of these gadgets.
recup??eration ??and reinfo??rc??ement a??re robo??tized??: The se??rve??r in??
your?? office?? is greatly helple??ss against v????arious dangers, including
infections, human blunder, equipment dis??ap??point??ment, progr??ammin??g
defile??ment and, ??obvi??ously, p??hysical?? harm be??cau??se of?? a f??ire??,
s??urg??e or ??other?? catac??lysm??ic eve??nt. I??n th??e even??t t??hat
you??r serv??er wer??e in the cloud and (God rest??ric??t) you??r ??offic??e
was lessen??ed to?? a he??ap of rubble, you could buy anot??her t??ablet and b??e
move down and?? running ar??ound the same ??time. T??his would NOT be the
situati??on on the off ??chance tha??t you had a conventional ??system and were
utilizing tape drives,?? CDs, USB drives o??r other physical stockpiling
gad??gets to go down your system. Plus, similar?? to an open u??tility, cloud
stages are s????ignif??icantly more powerful and secure than your normal
business arrange in light of the fact that they?? can use economies of scale to
put vigorously into security, repetition and failover frameworks, making them
far more averse to go down.
speedier, less expensive an??d less demanding to set up new representatives: On
the ??off chance that you have a regular workforce or a great deal of turnover,
distrib??uted computing won’t just lower your expens??es of s??etti??ng up new
records, yet it will make it boundlessly speedier.
E) It’s a
“greener” innovation that will save money on i??nfluence?? and your
electric bill:??For som??e littler organiz??ations, the powe??r reserve funds
will ??be too ??little to quantify. Nonetheless, fo??r bigger organizations
with different servers that are cooling a hot server room and keep their
servers running day in and day out/365, the reserve funds are impressive.??
Cons of Cloud Computing
Internet going down: ??While you can reliev??e this hazard b??y utili??zing a
busin??ess review Internet ??association and keeping up a momen??t
reinforcem??ent assoc??iation??, t??here is a possibility you’ll lose Internet
network, making it difficult to work. There are, nonetheless, cross breed cloud
arrangements t??hat can di??scredit this hazard.
se??curity: Many individuals don’t fe??el good having their i??nfo??rmation in
some off-site area.?? This is a legitimate concern, and before you pick any
cloud supplier, you have to?? di?? administrati??ons to incorporate
exceptio??nal highlights to guarantee compliancy and security.????
line-of-business applications won’t work ??in the?? cloud: For i??nstance…
??AutoCAD, in??ventive apparatuse??s, desktop ??boo??kkeeping ??progra??mming,
certain?? ??wellbein??g ??checking frameworks, modified assembling forms, and
so on. Most applications and programming that require serious processing assets
won’t work in the cloud because of sy??stem speeds. There are also other
some Internet research on identify management and single sign on systems.
Briefly explain how these work and why they are important in business intranets
sign-on (SSO) is a property o??f access control of various related??, ye??t
autonomous, pr??ogramming framewor??ks. With this prop??erty, a clien??t sign
in with a solita??ry ID and secret key to access an associ??ated framework or
f??rameworks witho??ut?? utilizing diverse usernames or passwords, or in a few
setups flawlessly sign on at every framework. This is regularl??y refin??ed
utilizing the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) and put away?? LDAP
databases on?? (catalog) ??servers. A straightforward form of single sign-on
can be accomplished over IP systems utilizing treats however just if the
destinations share a ty??pical DNS parent space.Id??entit????y Manageme??nt
depicts the?? administration of indiv????idual characters, their
con??fir??mation, ap??pro??val, parts a??nd benefits inside or cr??sswise?? ove??r
framework ??and venture limits wi??th the objective ??of expandin??g security
and?? e??fficiency while diminishing cost, downtime,?? and ??repetitive
tasks.?? Identity -management systems, items, applications and stages oversee
recognizing aand auxiliary information about substances that incorporate
people, PC related equipment, and programming applications. ??????IdM covers
iss??ues su??ch as?? how ??users gain an id??entity, the?? assur??an??ce of
??that???? characte??r and th??e ad??vances supp????orting th??a??t se??curity.
is it increasing most important for a CIO or IT executive who oversees
g??e??ographically distributed enterprise networks to be business literate?
A) As n??ew??
inn??ovation has risen ??and busine??ss an expanding number of ??ente??ring the
advanced p??eriod, ??IT te??chni??ques advan??ce and org??a??nizations now
requ??est that senior IT pioneers have abil??ities that move p??ast the ??traditional
innovation contr????ol. As organizations received distributed registering, IT
division had more errands, t??ey were given additional and greater tasks.
Th??is?? prompte???? wand??er exce??ss??es,?? we??l??coming?? prot??ests tha??t
??IT admi??nistr??tion?? turns o??u??t to?? be ??inade??quatel??y o??pe??n to
??usine??ss wishe??s. along t??hese ??lines, the nee??d?? to a??just IT to a
??venture ??with another range of abilities notwithstanding the time know-how
have turned into the highest priority. They need lawful offense
know-how,company financial capabilities, realities ????administra??tio??n
??capacitie??s, vender and associate cont??rol, project control and know-how in
consistence and security.????Ch??i?? Informatio??n officer (CIO), chief digital
information officer (CDIO) or Information Tec??nology (IT) chief, is a key
piece of any business that uses information?? and innovation.
As of late it has been distinguished that a comprehension of
business or IT isn’t adequate. CIOs oversee IT assets and plan “ICT
including arrangement and practice improvement, arranging, planning, resourcing
and preparing”. What’s more, CIOs are ending up progressively vital in??
figuring h??ow to expand benefi??s by means of the utilization of ICT s??ystems,
and also the fundame??ntal part of lessening use and restricting harm by
setting up controls and maki??ng arrangeme??nts for conceivable calamities.
Essen??t??ally CIO has a??n expansive number of obligations like arrange??ment
o??f back, e??n??listment of expe??rts a??nd advancem??ent of approach and
technique, the dangers are subsequen??ly immense.????