ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR -STEREOTYPIESv In order to recognize that behaviour is abnormal , the person observing must be familiar with the normal behaviour of that species.v A difficulty arises if many of the animals kept show the same kind of abnormal behaviour,may be taken as normal behaviour.eg:bar biting in sows.v In order to obtain knowledge of the behavioural repertoire of animals and establish what is normality it is necessary to study the animals in a relatively complex environment where they have the opportunity to show the full range of their behaviour,it would not be the wild environment but it should provide all the components that are important for the animal.v An extensive knowledge of the biology of animals and a detailed ecological investigation are therefore needed to decide what behaviour is abnormal.v Abnormal behaviour is behaviour that differs in pattern, frequency or context from that which is shown by most members of a species in conditions that allow a full range of behaviour.ABNORMAL BEHAVIOURS1.Stereotypies2.Self directed and Environment directed3.Addressed to another individual4.Failure of function5.Anamalous reactivity STEREOTYPIES It is a repeated ,relatively invariate sequence of movements which has no obvious purpose.Behavioural repertoires of animals such as walking, flapping flight would not be called stereotypies rather it should have some apparent lack of function. By the time stereotypy is established no simple function is served.Physiology of stereotypy:ü The performance of stereotyped behaviour depends on brain dopamine systems and opiate peptides in the brain.ü Naloxone ,which blocks the mu receptor opiate sites for opioids such as beta endorphin ,when administered cease the stereotypic behaviour.ü Sows that showed much stereotypy had lower mu and kappa receptors and lower dopamine in the frontal cortex, while horses shoeing more stereotypies had more dopamine receptors in the nucleus.ü Stereotypies occur in situations where the individual lacks control of its environment.Possible causes :Ø Frustration about food inadequacyØ Barren environment, housing in individual stables ü Occurrence of stereotypies can be alleviated or eradicated by appropriate environmental enrichment.1. Pacing or route tracing2. Circling and tail chasing.3. Rocking ,swaying and weaving4. Rubbing involve other parts of the 5. Pawing and stall kicking body6. Head shaking and head nodding7. Wind sucking8. Eye rolling 9. Sham chewing10. Tongue rolling involve 11. Licking or crib whetting oral part12. Bar biting ,tether biting or crib biting13. Drinker pressing 1.PACING OR ROUTE TRACING The repeated action patterns during pacing or route tracing are those used in walking or other locomotion,but the animal follows a path that reurns to its origin and which is often repeated with only minor modifications.Examples1.Route tracing of zoo animals in cages 2. Horses under conditions of minimal exercise in chronic confinement3. Hens before oviposition if no nest material is available. Causes:1.Frustration due to confinement,absence of social partner,absence of food.Remedy :Providing comfortable environment by eliminating thwarting circumstances.2.CIRCLING OR TAIL CHASINGAnimals turn in tight circles and try to catch their own tails.Causes:Neurological disorderDermatological problemEnvironmental inadequacyFrustrationExample : Tail chasing in dogs.Remedy:Treatment if it is neurological or dermatological disorder,Remove the frustrating situation.3)ROCKING , SWAYING AND WEAVING:The animal remains in one place,but the body is moved forwards and backwards from side to side, with or without head swinging.Examples:Monkeys in captivityHorses and cattle when tethered show rocky behaviour.Weaving in race horses,resulting in weight loss.Causes: No companies ,deprived of mother.No variety in the environmentRemedy:Tying the horse with cross chains to limit the lateral movement of the head.Turning out to pasture ,Enforced exercise4) RUBBING: Some part of the body is moved against solid object and the movement is repeated so many times ,sometimes to alleviate local irritation.Causes:Close confinement, chronic restrictionExamples :Horned cattle rubbing against wall.Head rubbing in pigsHorses rubbing hindquarters.5)PAWING AND STALL KICKINGPawing is a normal behaviour of four legged animals,it becomes abnormal when performed with vigour in a persistent stereotyped fashion.Causes :Frustration in dogsConfinementAttention seeking in horses in case of stall kickingRemedy:Putting in pastureHanging mats or barriers 6)HEAD SHAKING OR HEAD NODDINGHead is moved vertically,laterally with a rotatory movement of neck.Examples :Head shaking in domestic fowl.Head nodding in horsesCauses:Close presence of observer in caged birdsNoxious gas in poultry house.Confinement Remedy :Comfortable environment7)WIND SUCKINGMovements during which air is sucked in and expelled. Common in horsesRemedy:Use of wind sucker strap fastened tightly around the throat,with a heart shaped piece of thick leather held between the angles of the jaws with the pointed end protruding towards a pharyngeal area, which causes discomfort to the horses.Creation of fistulae on each side of the mouth between the buccal cavity and outer cheek.8).EYE ROLLING :The eyes are moved around in the orbit at a time when no visible object is present.Young calves confined in crates sometimes stand immobile for extended periods and eye rolling is repeated.9). SHAM CHEWING Moving jaws when the animal has no food in its mouth in monogastric animals.Common in sows when tethered in stalls singly causes frothing and foaming of saliva.Remedy :Providing straw or fibrous material to chew and root.Group housing. 10).TONGUE ROLLING:The tongue is extruded from the mouth and moved by curling and uncurling outside or inside the mouth with no solid matter present.Common in Cattle and calves immediately before and after feeding.In horses it is called as tongue drawing Remedy :Wind sucking trapsInsertion of metal ring at the frenulum lingueProvision of salt licks11).LICKING AND CRIB WHETTINGTongue is applied repeatedly to an areas of animal’s own body or some objects in the surroundings.Remedy :Good supply of feedFree environment 12) BAR BITING ,TETHER BITING OR CRIB BITINGThe animal opens and closes its mouth around a bar and performs chewing movement.Pregnant sows which are more restricted show this behaviour. Crate in front and sides are made of metal piping or tethers that restrict the movement of the sowBar-biting is common in cattle. Crib –biting is common in horsesRemedy:Providing straw and increasing the food, comfortable environment13) DRINKER PRESSING Pressing automated drinker repeatedly without ingesting water.Common in pregnant sows when provided with a nipple drinker.