Abstract industry. This report will provide valuable information

Abstract

This
project involves discovering how the daylighting systems came about. This has been done by examining
events such as when the Egyptians first developed glass and events led to further
inventions. For
some time, there has been the need to bring new technologies utilising daylight
in buildings and to assess their performance concerning with the building
industry. This report will provide valuable information regarding the types of
daylighting systems and its benefits.

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1. Summary

The
illumination requirements of an architectural space are the psychological
benefits and the energy savings benefits of daylighting system. Daylighting is the practice of placing windows or other openings and reflective surfaces so that during the day natural
light provides effective internal lighting. Particular attention is given to
daylighting while designing a building when the aim is to maximize visual
comfort or to reduce energy use. By
providing a direct link to the dynamic and perpetually evolving patterns of
outdoor illumination, has been shown to improve the overall
attitude, satisfaction and well-being of building occupants, while reducing as much as one-third of
total building energy costs. In addition, with proper solar control,
solar gains during cooling load periods can be mitigated and solar gains during
heating load periods can be utilized, reducing the energy requirements of both
cooling and heating a space.

 

2. Introduction

The history of daylighting
systems came about when the
Egyptians first developed glass as
early as 3000 BCE, but it was not used to fill an opening in a building until
much later, during the first century BCE in Imperial Rome, when small panes of
glass were used to simultaneously admit the warmth of sunlight indoors while
protecting building occupants from the element of sunlight. Daylight
was the only efficient light available as a primary source
of daylighting in buildings and the architecture of the day was
dominated by the aspiration to span wide spaces and creating openings large
enough to distribute daylight to building interiors.

3. Types of daylighting systems

Daylighting systems is the practice of collecting natural
light and deliver it deep into the buildings with placing windows or other openings and reflective surfaces so that during the daylight provides effective
internal lighting. Attention is given to daylighting while
designing a building when the aim is to maximize visual comfort or to reduce
energy use. Energy savings can be achieved from the reduced use of artificial
(electric) lighting or from passive
solar heating.
Artificial lighting energy use can be reduced by simply installing fewer
electric lights because daylight is present, or by dimming/switching electric
lights automatically in response to the presence of daylight, a process known
as daylight harvesting.

There are two main types of daylighting system found in Singapore:

·      
Tubular
daylight devices

·      
Mirror-duct
system

·      
Light
shelf

 

3.1 Tubular
daylight device

 

Tubular
daylight devices essentially
use a pipe that sticks out of a building’s roof with a highly reflective surface directly into occupied spaces. 

 

 

3.1.1. Typical
tubular daylight device

 

·       a. Collector: Captures the sunlight 

·       b. Transition: Channel light downwards

·       c. Diffuser: Spread light indoor

 

Advantages

Disadvantages

·      
No mechanical parts required
·      
Relatively inexpensive
·      
Harvest relatively low levels or light
·      
Consumed small space to install

·      
A significant loss of light beyond 10 metres (3
storey) where there is a change of direction in the tube

 

3.2 Mirror-duct system

Similar to tubular daylighting device, the system uses duct made
of highly reflective material (mostly aluminium) to bring in natural light into
the space, enabling a considerable energy natural light into the space and considerable
energy consumption saving. There are no mechanical parts involved and no power
is required for this system.

Mirror ducts capture (zenith) angle between the sun and
the vertical. Light is channelled into
horizontal reflective ducts within the false ceiling which then exits through
the ceiling apertures.

c. Illuminating unit

The system
contributes to CO2 discharge reduction by decreasing electric power usage for
lighting as well as the creation of comfortable environments that artificial
lighting cannot provide.

b. Light-transmitting unit

a. Light-capturing unit

 

a. Light-capturing unit: The mirror reflects the sunlight
inward

b. Light-transmitting unit: The
“duct” transmit the sunlight

c. Illuminating unit: Uniformity in illumination

 

Advantages

Disadvantages

·       High energy efficiency
·      
Transmission of natural light
·       Energy conservation

·       A significant
loss of light beyond 10 metres (3 storey) where there is a change of
direction in the tube

 

3.3 Light
shelf

 

A light shelf is a passive architectural device that permits daylight to
enter deep into a building with its highly reflective surfaces. This can help to reduce the use
of artificial lighting at daytime. Light shelves may also function as sunshades.

 

Light
shelfs

No
light shelfs

B

A

 

3.2.1 Different amount of light enter with or without light shelf

 

·      
A: Glare and focus on one direction

·      
B: Light bounce, avoiding glare and spread light
into the room

 

Advantages

Disadvantages

·      
Enhances daylight quality
·      
Conserves energy by allowing
perimeter lighting to be dimmed or turned off
·      
Increases occupant comfort and
productivity

·      
Requires higher than average floor-to-ceiling
height to be effective (e.g. 3 m)
·      
Increases maintenance requirements
·      
Window coverings must be coordinated with light
shelf design

 

 

 

 

4.
Conclusion

The
performance of daylighting system is optimised when it is properly utilised by installing
at appropriate places on a building. Its redirection and selectivity of sun
rays offers significant amount of energy savings for building owners making
sunlighting strategies more effective in countries like Singapore. These will change
the perspective of building owners of the benefits of installing this daylighting
system according to their needs and secure a huge cost saving plan in a long run.

5.
Recommendations

For
each space in a building, consider whether daylighting is appropriate. These
types of spaces would ideally be located in the core of the building where
there is limited access to daylight. Spaces that are continually occupied and
where daylighting would more beneficial to the occupants and to the energy
efficiency of the space should have a high daylighting priority. These spaces
should be located towards the perimeter of a building where there is a
plentiful daylight resource.

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