Abstract: IoT applications. In this paper we review

Abstract: Now a day many
researchers are contributing their research in the field of Internet on Things
(IoT), Since it is important and attractive technology. IoT means communication
between Human to Device or any device to any device, anywhere in real time.
This communication takes place with the help of different smart sensors which
are connected via internet. For short distance communication medium can be
RFID, Z Wave, ZigBee, Bluetooth or wi-fi similarly for long distance GSM, 3G and
LTE nothing but 4G. Currently many organization started doing research on 5G
for IoT applications.

In this paper we review a
concept of few IoT applications, challenges and future scope of IoT in detail.
Due to IoT, world becomes smart in every aspect so we have chosen the following
examples like Smart Home, Smart Cities, Smart Agriculture and smart health.

Key
words: WSN, IoT applications, Smart Home, Smart Cities,
Smart Agriculture and smart health.

Introduction:

We can not imagine our
life without internet because Internet has impact on our daily life, education,
business, government, humanity and society 1. Clearly, the internet is one of
the most important and

 

 

 

 

powerful creations in all
human history and now with the concept of internet of things, internet becomes
more favourable to have a smart life in every aspect 1. The future of modern
wireless communication will overcome all the boundaries of traditional communication.
By the 2020 around 50 to 100 billion things will be connected 1-2. electronically
by internet and developing the IoT technics testing and deploying products will be much close to implementing smart
environment in future.  Urban living
already poses major challenges in our daily lives. Therefore, urgent solutions
are sought for viable living conditions and sustainable city development. On
the other hand, the tremendous development of information and communications
technologies (ICT) and the power of the Internet may help us see the light at
the end of the tunnel 2

 
Figure 1: Introduction of IoT applications

Different kinds of
sensors are connected into the network are having different language
(heterogeneous environment) is one of the main challenge in IoT implementation
145. similarly researches have to give more focus on size of
infrastructure, large data handling, privacy/ security/ authentication of data
and power consumption by devices 35.

framework for IoT proposes
following main issues:

• The considerable number
of objects that fall within the scope of any IoT applications and their heterogeneity
24.

• The integrally
unreliable nature of such objects and the guarantee of the end-to-end flexibility
2.

 • The complexity associated with the huge
quantities of usable objects in a smart city context to this end we have
identified the need to support end users and application providers with
techniques that can automatically select by relevance all potential objects
discovered to be available for use and able to meet given application requirements
1-2.

To provide assistance for
individual residents, a smart home with electronic medical equipment and
telemedicine is one solution to the aging population, the cost of health care
and the importance that individuals place on remaining independent and in their
own homes. In this field, the most challenging and well-researched issues are
human activity monitoring, modelling and pattern recognition. There is a need
for online activity recognition techniques which can remotely track the status
or activities of the resident. 5

The goal of this review
paper is to highlight the significant research area of IoT in form of case
study. This paper is divided into following sections I Smart home, II smart
cities, III smart agriculture, IV Smart health and finally V Summary and future
scope.

 

I.                  
Smart
Home

 

                                       

 

             Figure
2: Smart home

 

IoT provides new
direction for the development of smart homes.

 Smart
Home consist of  automation, remote
monitoring and controlling of lighting, heating (such as smart
thermostats), ventilation, air conditioning
(HVAC)10, and security, as well as home
appliances such as washer/dryers, ovens or
refrigerators/freezers16.

To
implement this infrastructure, we have to use smart sensors, switches central
gateway, controller mobile phone tablet of web interface 5.

 

           Figure 3: Smart Home using IoT

 

Smart home system with
IoT has three functions, data collection, reliable transmission and intelligent
processing. The first part is the terminal node of the wireless communication
module 6.  Its function is to collect
information form appliances of kitchen, bedroom, living room and bathroom,
mainly including home appliances, lighting equipment and security equipment,
etc. Therefore, comprehensive perception of family environment can be realized
due to the data collection and the data interaction between sensors and
wireless interface can be completed by the smart home gateway. for wireless
transmission various protocols are available depending upon requirement one can
choose IEEE 802.15, CAN, I2C or Ethernet Interface. The wireless medium controller
is responsible for entire data routing. The monitored data of the home
appliances, which are collected by wireless sensor network, are uploaded to a
variety of terminal devices with WEB browsers in real-time. Meanwhile the
control data from the terminal devices can be received and transmitted 6.

 

II.               
Smart
Cities

 

               Figure 4: Smart City

IoT
and Smart cities have attracted attention from academia and industry for
decades 5.

 

“A
smart sustainable city is an innovative city that uses ICTs and other means to
improve quality of life, efficiency of urban operation and services and
competitiveness, while ensuring that it meets the needs of present and future
generations with respect to economic, social and environmental aspects 6.

 

Smart
cities demand requires careful planning in every stage, with support of
agreement from governments, citizens to implement the internet of things
technology in every aspect 1. With the help of IoT the IoT, cities can be
improved in many levels, by improving infrastructure, enhancing public transportation
reducing traffic congestion, and keeping citizens safe, healthy and more
engaged in the community 2.

 

Smart
infrastructure provides the foundation for all of the key themes related to a
smart city, including smart people, smart mobility, smart economy, smart living
which consist of

1.      
Smart
water supply

2.      
Smart
waste management

3.      
Smart
health

4.      
Smart
energy,

5.      
smart
governance

6.      
smart
environment.

7.      
Smart
transport

The
core characteristic that underlies most of these components is that they are
connected and that they generate data, which may be used intelligently to
ensure the optimal use of resources and improve performance 7. various kinds of devices listed below collectively form what is called
‘IoT’ that are critical in shaping future smart cities:
Sensors that monitor the condition of
utilities such as electricity, water supply, load on surface transport and
capture real time data; Gateways that aggregate real-time data from these
sensors, perform local analytics and based on the result, take localised action
to prevent possible faults from further propagating into the networks 7 14. Communication
infrastructure to connect these gateways to server cloud for transmitting data
on condition of local area 10.
Server farms in a cloud based architecture that warehouses the data; perform
real-time mining of such data to provide useful information to various
stakeholders through various channels such as mobile devices 5 9-10.

These devices facilitate optimisation
of service availability in the local area while confirming to the regional and
macro level constraints. This provides flexibility to local community in terms
of prioritising the usage of scarce resources 7 14.

The second important element is the
design architecture of the different ICT components of smart city projects
9-10 14. Though currently only a few firms dominate the ICT platform for
smart cities, it is required to build platforms with open gateways, application
program interfaces, and open data sets so that expertise of numerous Indian IT
firms (both small and large) and the huge developer communities can be tapped
for building innovative applications and services.

The sensors, communication devices,
and the transmission infrastructure provide huge opportunity for local
electronics manufacturing which has been identified as a focus area by the
government. The data so collected if made open, provide ammunition for big data
and analytics start-ups in the country 14.

Third is measurement of smartness of
cities. The GSM Association—the industry body of mobile operators, launched the
smart cities index that consists of a set of market, social and economic
indicators that track the performance of smart cities initiatives. The
ICT/mobile indicators are a subset of a broader range of smart cities
indicators. Their use will allow the cities to quantify the impact of
ICT/mobile on the city’s operations, its local economy and its citizens 7
14. Some leading smart city projects include IBM’s Smart Planet and
Smart Cities, the Smart Dubai and Smart Amsterdam initiatives and Oracle
government, as examples 5.

 

III.            
 Smart Agriculture

 

                Figure5: Smart Agriculture

 

In
last decade precision agriculture using wireless sensor network was popular
concept but now when all the world is moving toward IoT infrastructure,
agriculture field is also switches to modern technology.

In
India 70% of population depends upon farming and one third nation’s capital
comes from farming 8.

Monitoring
the environmental factors is not the complete solution to increase the yield of
crops. There are number of factors like attacks of insects and pets, attacks of
wild animal and birds that decrease the productivity to a greater extent 9.
So, in order to provide solution to all such problems, it is necessary to
develop an integrated system which will take care of all factors affecting the
productivity in every stage 9.

The
newer scenario of decreasing water tables, drying up of rivers and tanks,
unpredictable environment presents an urgent need of proper utilization of
water. To cope up with this use of temperature and moisture sensor at suitable
locations for monitoring of crops 8.

System
developed with threshold values of temperature and soil moisture can be
programmed into a microcontroller-based gateway to control water quantity. The
system can be powered by photovoltaic panels and can have a duplex
communication link based on a cellular-Internet interface that allows data
inspection and irrigation scheduling to be programmed through a web page 8-9.

 

IV.            
Smart Health:

           Figure 6: Smart Healthcare

 

IoT
in healthcare is heterogenous computing, wirelessly communicating system of
software and devices that connects patients and health provider to diagnose,
monitor, track and store vital statistics and medical information 11.

Various sensors are attached to human body to monitor and
control the following physical parameters like BP Monitor, Glucose Monitor, ECG
Monitor, Pulse Oximeters, Sensors Embedded in Medical Equipment, Dispensing
Systems, Surgical Robots and Device Implants 12.

Services
under Smart Health:

Smart Medicine: Providing a professional consultant to a patient in
remote location or assisting a primary care.78% of emergency care could be
handled efficiently using e Medicine11.

 Smart Monitoring: Collecting patient data using IoT and sending the data
to a healthcare monitoring agency for remote testing and diagnosis. e
monitoring services also include personalized alerts that inform a patient’s
healthcare provider and relatives in times of emergency 11.

Smart Surgery: Enabling the surgeon to perform an operation on a
patient from a distant location using Robotics technology or video conferencing
11.

Remote
Medical Education: Providing medical
education to healthcare service community and targeted groups from a geographically
different location 11.

 

Many peoples around the worlds are suffering from the bad
health because they don’t have ready access to effective smart health
monitoring and may be a suspected to be as critical situation patients. But
with small, powerful wireless solutions connected through the IoT are now
making possible for monitoring to come to these patients 1 11-13. These
solutions can be used to securely capture patient health data from a variety of
sensors, apply complex algorithms to analyze the data and then share it through
wireless connectivity with medical professionals who can make appropriate smart
health recommendations 13

 

Summary and Future
scope:

In
summary, one of the future is that IoT becomes a utility with increased
sophistication in sensing, actuation, communications, in creating knowledge,
Controlling and monitoring from vast amounts of data. This will result in
qualitatively different lifestyles from today.

For
future developments it can be enhanced by developing this system for large
scale. the
internet of things many smart applications becomes real in our life, which
enable us to reach and contact with everything in addition to facilities many
important aspects for human life such as smart healthcare, smart homes, smart energy,
smart cities and smart environments.

Acknowledgement

 We express our sincere thankfulness to my Project
Guide Dr R.M. Vani for her valuable guidance to this paper. Without her help it
would be a tough job for me to accomplish this task. I am thankful for her
consistent guidance, encouragement and motivation throughout the period of
work.

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14http://computer.expressbpd.com/columns/icts-and-smart-cities/2434/

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