Abstract things” and why is it impacting us

    

    

Abstract

    

    

    

 

Abstract

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The
“Internet of things” has become a growing discussion topic of
conversation not only in the office but also at home since it is a
revolutionary concept that will both change the way we work but moreover the
way we live. So, what exactly is the “Internet of things” and why is
it impacting us or will it impact us? A lot of technical, social and political policies
concerning this topic have been made but many people are still trying to
understand what it is about. Also, they have been different definitions around
the “Internet of things” but in this paper, I wish to stick to main
basics, thus so giving an overview of what this new concept is and examples of how
it is affecting us in our daily lives.

This article is directed at providing an
all-inclusive overview of the concept of internet of things and how it applies
to human factor designs considerations. Furthermore, in this paper I reviewed
the common applications, driving technologies and its some of its HF challenges.

Keywords: 
Internet of Things, RFID, WSN

1.     
INTRODUCTION:
THE INTERNET OF THINGS

In
the mid 2000’s, Kevin Ashton who then worked for MIT Auto ID lab coined the
basis for what might turn into the Internet of Things. He was one of the
pioneers who considered this idea as he researched ways that P company
could improve its business growth by connecting RFID data to the Web. 1

The idea was basic however very
powerful. If every item in day by day life were outfitted with identifiers and
remote network, these items or devices could speak with each other and be
overseen by personal computers(PCs). In a 1999 article Ashton expressed:
“On the off chance that if we had PCs that knew everything there was to
think about things—utilizing information they accumulated with no assistance
from us – we would have the capacity to track and check everything, and
significantly decrease waste and cost. We would know when things required
replenishing, repairing or reviewing, and whether they were in top operational
condition or past their best. So we needed to enable PCs with their own methods
for gathering data, so they can see, hear and notice the world for themselves, as
a result we utilized firstly Radio frequency identification (RFID) which is a
wireless communication technology that lets computers read the identity of
inexpensive electronic tags from a distance without requiring a battery in the
tags and secondly sensor technology to enable computers to watch, distinguish
and  identify and comprehend the world without
the limitations of information that have to be inputted by humans.2

 Internet
of Things describes a network where devices in the physical world are
associated with sensors within or joined to these devices by remote or wireless
internet connectivity. As a result, the Internet of Things will Interface both
lifeless and living things, while using sensors for data collection and change
what sorts of thing impart over an Internet Protocol (IP) network. 3

 

2.     
 EXAMPLE APPLICATIONS OF INTERNET OF THINGS

By 2020 there will be much more than 30 billion associated gadgets. That
is a considerable amount of connectivity and the new slogan for the future will
be that can be made smart by connecting with the internet will be connected. 4
But what is our reason for connecting so may devices with each other? There are
numerous cases for what the value of in globalization of internet of things
will be. Say for instance, picture a student driving his car and headed for an
interview, his automobile could access his/her schedule and optimize his/her
route. What if our smart phone’s alarm while waking us up, can also signify our
tea maker to start brewing tea for us before we get to the sitting room. The following describes are some of IOT
applications.

2.1
Smart Traffic.

Smart cities with good traffic control
is a crucial part of the future society. It is important that vehicles moving
on a road or public highway flows efficiently. There is a need for a structure
that can improve the traffic flow in view of real time data obtained from devices
using Internet of Things technologies 5. Such an insightful traffic observatory
system, needs a proper structure for automatic identification of vehicles and
other traffic factors. As a result, it is imperative that we require internet
of Things and its advancements as opposed to utilizing basic picture operating
techniques 6. A smart traffic monitoring system aided by connectivity from
the internet of things will provide a good transportation experience by facilitating
free flow of vehicles. It will also provide features like theft-detection,
reporting of traffic accidents, etc. The streets of this smart city will give
redirections with climatic changes. The road lighting system will be adaptive
to weather changes as part of conservation of energy etc.

 2.2 Environmental Applications.

Internet of Things and its innovations
will be able to accurately predict natural disasters such as hurricanes,
tornadoes, flood etc.

2.3
Home Applications.

Internet of Things will enable the
enhancement of do it yourself (DIY) home automation solutions with which we
will have the capacity to remotely control our home appliances/ devices
according to our requirements and personal preferences. Correct observation of
utility meters, energy and water supply which will help in energy conservation
while efficiently detecting leaks and power surges etc. Also, it will foster enhanced
security and trespassing detection system which will prevent burglaries.

2.4
Health Centers Applications.

Medical centers will be installed with
smart adaptable wearable devices which will be provided to the sick patients
and via which health practitioners can observe the necessary vital signs (heart
rate, blood pressure, temperature and other conditions) of patients inside or
outside the premises of the health centers 7.

2.5
Automated Farming.

Farmers will be able to observe factors
like Soil nourishment, Light, soil moistness etc. and improve the green housing
farming practices by automating watering, fertilization processes which will
lead to optimal crop production.

2.6
Retailing and Supply-chain Administration.

Internet of Things with RFID gives many
preferences to retailers. With the equipping of RFID in items, a retailer can easily
track their stocks. Retailers can monitor every one of the things in a store
and to keep them from going out of stock.

 

3.0
TECHNOLOGY AND INTERNET OF THINGS

The following are some of the relevant
technologies that aid in the enlargement / global development of Internet of
Things

3.1
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is
the main technology used in uniquely identifying a device. Its tiny size and
low cost enables it to be inputted into any device. It is a transceiver
microchip which could be either active and passive, depending on application
type. it utilizes electromagnetic fields to distinguish and detect tags
attached to devices. The tags houses electronically saved data. They are two
types of tags, passive and active tags. Active tags have a nearby power source
(for example, a battery) and may work several meters from the RFID reader. Passive
tags collect power from a nearby RFID reader’s radio waves. 8

3.2
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

A wireless sensor network is a group of
specialized transducers with a communications infrastructure for monitoring and
recording conditions at diverse locations. Typical observed parameters are
temperature, pressure, weight, speed, vibration intensity, sound intensity,
voltage, and fundamental body capacities 9

3.3
Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is the delivery of
computing services which includes servers, storage, databases, networking,
software, analytics, etc. over the Web. Companies (for example Goggle) that
provide these computing services are called cloud suppliers and typically
charge for cloud computing services based on usage.

The cloud seems to be the only
technology that can analyze and store all the data effectively. The cloud is by
all accounts the main innovation that can dissect and store every one of the
information successfully. cloud computing is the most essential piece of internet
of Things, which unites the servers as well as increases the processing,
analyzing and handling power of the valuable data that is gotten from the
sensors 10.

 3.4 Networking Technologies

Networking technologies have also
played a contributing role in the successful development of Internet of Things
since they are responsible for the connection between the devices. For
wide-range transmission network we typically utilize 3G, 4G etc. So also, for a
short-range system we utilize advancements like Bluetooth, WiFi and so on.

3.5
Nano Innovations

This innovation ensures that miniature
and enhanced form of the things are interconnected. Nano inventions ensures
that energy utilization by a network can be simplified, making it more
efficient.

 

 

4. HUMAN FACTORS AND INTERNET OF
THINGS.

The
value to be gotten from of the Internet of Things are supposed to be numerous.
In any case, the challenges in executing the internet of Things appropriately also
may be equally numerous.  It is said that
upwards of seventy five percent of internet of Things related ventures are
coming up short 11. Since, Internet of things is more than just interfacing
gadgets. When fabricating projects about internet of things, organizations
would increase their success rate by expanding their scope of thinking about
innovation to include the human side of the undertaking.

Also,
most human-innovation interfaces in Internet of Things are still rather
conventional, and generally based on GUIs. Be that as it may, more natural
multiple mode interaction could result in a more productive and efficient way
of communication with these internet of Things gadgets. unfortunately, such
interfaces are not studied vastly within the context of Internet of Things. So
therefore, there is need for publishing of more success case study examples to demonstrate
the experiences of various interaction techniques which have been contemplated.
12.

 

Critical
factors such as safety, feeling of control, and privacy, has led to huge
challenges and push back of the technology. So, more research is needed to
understand how internet of things affects and changes human behavior in the
long run. 13

 

 

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