Artillery, tanks, machine guns and air forces where the primary weapons of the WW2, but none of these weapons would be effective without appropriate coordinates showing where the enemy is, and where to hit the missiles, that’s why the main weapon was not made of iron, nor of gun powder, it was made from information. Countries have dedicated most of their budget to recruit spies and secret agents for gathering vital data from the enemy lines, and secret intelligence competed with each other ambiguously and that what decided the result of the war.
The importance of information lies in its ability to be useful and effective when used in the correct place and time, that’s why we see museums and archives taking a good care of their rare collections, and also many institutions monopolize their possessed information starting from the core point of information importance and other reasons, mainly financial and copyright issues.
In a library perspective of information, libraries don’t only recognize and appreciate an important piece of information, but also describes and represents, i.e. type of carrier, author, publisher and other bibliographic recordings, as well as, organizing information for an easy retrieval.
To manage the glut of specimens collected, Carl Linnaeus was the first who invented index cards, a look-alike cardboard, cut into equal pieces and put in a drawer, which could be updated or shuffled upon need. Despite that this invention wasn’t first invented for a library usage and it was restricted to banks and bureaucrats (Everts, 2016). In the later of 18th-century index cards invention was adopted by libraries.
After this invention, libraries have created many codes and rules to organize their collections, and be able to retrieve them easily and in a short period of time. Starting with the British Museum Rules in 1839, passing by A.L.A. Cataloging Rules with its two editions, 1941 and 1949 respectively, continuing with the Anglo-American Code with joint efforts from the United States and the United Kingdom. Don’t forget to mention Dewey and Cutter, as large contributors in this domain.
The title of a book or any other query that we search in a library system or in an (Online Public Access Catalog) OPAC and directly pops into our computer window, with its full bibliographic data, this electronically searchable database is a set of condensed experiences and accumulated knowledge of data management. However, this thing wouldn’t be able to happen without the contribution of Machine Readable Cataloging (MARC), the completion of MARC by the computer programmer, who is mostly referred to as “The Mother of MARC” (Schudel, 2006) Henriette Avram was a revolution in the library community since it became an international standard worldwide.