Bacteria are microscopic single-celled
organisms that thrive in diverse environments. They can live within soil, in
the ocean and inside the human gut. Humans’ relationship with bacteria is
complex. Sometimes they lend a helping hand, by curdling milk into yogurt, or
helping with our digestion. At other times they are destructive, causing
diseases like pneumonia and MRSA.
even smaller than bacteria and require living hosts. Such as people, plants or
animals to multiply. Otherwise, they can’t survive. When a virus enters your body, it invades some of your cells and takes over the cell
machinery, redirecting it to produce the virus.
Fungi are living organisms. They used to be grouped together with plants
but they are distantly related. They are perhaps more closely related to
animals than to plants. Fungi consist of molds, yeasts and mushrooms.
A parasite is an organism that lives in another
organism, called the host, and often harms it. It is dependent on its
host for survival – it has to be in the host to live, grow and multiply. A
parasite cannot live independently.
Illness associates with
– Necrotizing Fasciitis (Flesh-eating Disease)
associated with viruses :
C – dif
Herpes 1 & 2
related to fungi
-Fungal Skin Infections..
-Candidacies (Yeast Infection)
Illnesses related to parasites
An infection means that germs are in or
on the body and make you sick, which results in signs and symptoms such as
fever, pus from a wound, a high white blood cell count, or pneumonia. Germs can
also be in or on the body, but not make you sick. This is called colonization
The difference between a systemic
infection and a localised infection. A systemic infection affects the blood
stream such as the flu or high blood pressure or a disease which affects the
entire body. Where as a localised infection is one particular part of the body.
Poor practices that could lead to an
infection would be poor infection control measures. Meaning that the PPE
guidelines are not being followed appropriately.
A poor practice for an example would
be not changing your gloves before attending to another patient or not washing
your hands before and after personal intervention or food handling.
Understand the transmission of infection
Oxygen and moisture is required to encourage
micro-organisms to grow and survive.
An infectious agent can enter the body
through, airborne, through skin contact such as cut, wound. A infectious agent
could enter the body through the nose, mouth and eyes. Also through genitals or
a insect bite or open spot.
Common sources of infections can be airborne,
animals, people, surgical sites, people who are carriers, the environment.
Objects, bodily fluids such as blood, urine, faeces, sexually transmitted or
Infectious agents are transmitted to a person
from sharing towels, touching objects soon after a infection person has touched
Examples could be using a ward telephone
after an infected person has used it with their hand after not washing them
from doing personal care. Another way could be sneezing on the key board of a
computer then you typing on the keyboard and then rubbing your eyes.
Key factors that will promote infections to
occur would be not washing hands before and after interaction with infection
person. Not cleaning the environment and objects thoroughly and regularly. Not
following COSHH procedures and using correct cleaning products. Not adhering to