Bullying action (Wynne & Ryan 1997). This is

Bullying
is any severe or repeated use by one or more students of a written, verbal or
electronic expression, or a physical act or gesture, or any combination,
directed at another student that has the effect of actually causing or placing
the latter in reasonable fear of physical or emotional harm or damage to his
property (Republic act no. 10627) and this problem may appear in schools, in
all grade levels even in a Christian school setting (Hazeltine, 2015). MT1 In
addition, there
is a need to understand what triggers might be important for initiating
patterns of behavior or responses in such specific circumstances (Maunder &
Crafter 2017). MT2 Moreover,
the Department of Education emphasize the strict implementation and adaption of
DepEd anti-bullying policy. MT3 Thus,
this study argues that the responses to “physical and non-physical” (Karatzias,
Power, & Swanson 2002) bullying cases in private school are observable and
might be either passive or aggressive (Olweus 1991, Perry, Kusel, and Perry
1988) in nature.MT4 

            Bullying
seems to be a never ending problem (Rigby 2011). It may happen anywhere, in the
classroom (Atlas & Pepler 1998), in school, at home, and even in cyberspaces
(Whittaker & Kowalski, 2015). Anybody might be the victim of bullying.
Males are more likely to be bullied than females (Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974),
children with learning disabilities (Turunen, Poskiparta & Salmivalli 2017)
and even a bully himself (Yang & Salmivalli 2013). Anybody might also be a
bully. It could either be male or female (Atlas & Debra 1998), a friend
(Mieshna, Pepler & Weiner 2006) and sometimes the victim might become the
bully (Turunen, Poskiparta & Salmivalli 2017).

            On
the other hand, Christian private schools are committed to develop personal
character and caring communities (Hazeltine, 2015). The goal is to improve
student’s conduct as evidenced through words and action (Wynne & Ryan
1997). This is done through counseling and narration of character value laden
stories (Vessel 1998) from the Bible (Algera & Sink 2002). So, parents send
their students to private ‘Christian’ school to avoid bullying but it is not
exempt from such behavior (Smith 2016).

            In
addition, there are different responses to bullying from the victim’s
perspective. Though, all researchers agreed that bullying has a severe negative
effect to the victim and may affect his/her ’emotion, academic performance,
future life’ (Eskisu 2014). The response of the victim still depends on his/her
perception about bullying. Since, the definition of bullying varies according
to the age of the victim (Swain 1998) and social context (Tucker & Mauder
2015). But, responses to bullying can be classified under two category it could
either passive or aggressive response (Olweus 1991, Perry, Kusel, and Perry
1988).

            Although,
mostly are aware about the issues of bullying and its negative impact to the
life of the victim (Eskish 2014, Mieshna, Pepler & Weiner 2006) the problem
still exist and affecting the lives of some students. Since, teachers and school
personnel are less equipped with trainings on how to intervene and help on such
situations (Rigby 2011). And, students together with their parents are not
aware how to respond properly to such kind of behavior (Mieshna, Pepler &
Weiner 2006).

            The
study of bullying has covered different topics and aspects in the society. It
talked about the cause, negative impact to life (Eskisu 2014), interventions (Rigby
2014), places and situation when and where it may take place (Roland 1998, Rapp-Paglicci,
Dulmus, Sowers & Theriot 2008) in order to address the problem of bullying.
However,
the study of bullying in Christian schools is less explored (Hazeltine 2015)
and the possible responses of the victims are less emphasized.MT5 

            Studying
bullying in public and private non-sectarian schools is equally important in conducting
a study in private Christian school. It is a significant area to gather data
about bullying cases. As a result, this study intends to identify the passive and
aggressive responses of the victims to bullying cases in Christian school. This
will lead to deeper understanding about the behavior of the victims and
understanding on how to intervene and help in bullying situations. MT6 Thus,
this study.

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