Challenges system is practiced. In this connection this

Challenges
in Distribution Network of Newspapers: A Study of Newspapers in Tirupati

      L.Hemalatha*

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 Prof.C.Vani**

     

Introduction:

In the era of information a newspaper is considered to be one
of the most important reading materials in the life of a literate people to
know about surroundings of the globalised world. In present 60% of the people
cannot imagine their day without a newspaper. Newspaper is a
perishable and distinct product in its nature, and in almost every newspaper
organization must concentrates on marketing activities of the product because
the life span of the newspaper is only 12 to 24 hours. Readers they don’t pay
any amount for yesterday’s paper. So in every newspaper organisation there are
two departments namely Advertisement department and Circulation department are
the departments which will handle all the functions and activities regarding
marketing and distributing of the newspaper. The primary function of the Advertisement
department is to attract the commercial advertisers and as well the Circulation
department is wholly responsible for generating new subscriptions and
distribution of copies to the existing ones. Strategies of both the departments
should complement each other for the overall success of the organization.

The
Unique characteristics of Newspaper make it a bit complex for marketers to
chalk out promotional and distribution strategies. In any Newspaper
organisation the marketing and circulation departments involved in establishing
and implementing the marketing plans for both the advertisement and circulation
departments. The circulation department is also responsible for attain and
retain the customers by the value delivery network. For this the newspaper
organisations must concentrates on distribution network and monitor the
distribution agents on regular basis to overcome the distribution
challenges. 

Newspapers Distribution Process:

The
newspaper distribution network can be classified in two stages: They are

·        
From newspaper organisation or printing
location to the drop point

·        
From drop point to the reader

In
newspaper distribution network human factor plays a crucial role. In India
nearly 70% of the newspaper sales happen through door to door delivery through
network agents/hawkers. In Tirupati, there is no hawker system only newspaper
agent distribution system is practiced. In this connection this paper
concentrates on the following objectives.

Objectives:

1.      To
study the newspaper distribution network system in Tirupati.

2.      To
analyse the challenges in distribution network with respect to Tirupati region.

Methodology:

Area of Study: The
area Tirupati region was chosen for the study.

Geographical segmentation for
Study:

The
Only Urban Area of Tirupati were considered i.e. only the distribution agents
in urban area of Tirupati were chosen for study

Data Collection:

The
data can be collected by using primary and secondary ways.

Primary Data:

For
primary data the structured questionnaire was used to collect the data about
distribution system of newspapers. The questionnaire was distributed to
newspaper distribution agents in Tirupati Urban region.

Secondary Data:

The
secondary data for study was collected through periodicals, Surveys, Journals,
Organisation profiles, websites, and official portals of newspaper agencies,
governing bodies of newspapers and other related sources.

Sample for Study:

For
study, 50 newspaper distribution agents were selected as sample, because
distribution agents are the key players in entire newspaper distribution
process. They play a key vital role in distribute the newspapers to the readers
in time. In that process they may face various challenges and problems related
to distribution. In this connection the distribution agents were selected for
sample of study to get a clear idea on newspaper distribution network.

Data Analysis and Interpretation:

1.     
Gender
classification of Respondents:

Gender

No of
Respondents

% of
Respondents

Male

46

92

Female

4

8

Total

50

100

 

The
above table reveals that the gender wise representation of distribution agents.
The male respondents were 46 out of 50 i.e 92% of the respondents were  male and only 8% of the respondents were
female. From the above data it clears that only the male were interested in the
newspaper distribution business, in majority cases these females are only the
ownership is with them and the actual business was carried by their spouse
(men) only.

2.
Level of Education of Distribution Agents

Education

No of
Respondents

% of
Respondents

Below Secondary

8

16

Secondary

6

12

Inter

20

40

U.G

16

32

P.G

0

0

Total

50

100

           

 

From
the above data it describes that out of 50 respondents 20(40%) respondents belongs
to Intermediate, 16(32%) respondents belongs to Under Graduate, 8(16%)
respondents belongs to below secondary and only 6(12%) of the respondents
belongs to Secondary. There is no distribution agents belong to Post
Graduation. The above data describes that the educational qualifications also
decides the newspaper distribution business. It is a phenomena i.e, as
educational qualification increasing the no of distribution agents are decreasing
and vice- versa.

3.
Duration of Newspaper business carrying

Years

No of
Respondents

% of
Respondents

15 years

14

28

Total

50

100

 

 

 

The
above table depicts the duration of carrying the newspaper business. Out of 50
respondents 16(32%) respondents are involving in the business during the last
five years and the same respondents were doing the business from ten years,
14(28%) were doing the business more than 15 years and less no 4(8%) of the
respondents doing the business above ten years. It also clears that there is no
one doing the business from less than one year.

4.
Type of Business

Business

No of
Respondents

% of
Respondents

Part time

24

48

Fulltime

26

52

Total

50

100

 

The
type of business may vary from one agent to another agent. There are two types
of newspaper distribution business. One is Full time and another type is part
time. It may depend on the socio economic factor, convenience and time of the
agent. From the above table there is a slight variation i.e only 2(4%) of the
full time and part time business. Majority if the agents are interested in
doing the business on full time basis.

5.
Factors that are affecting distribution

Factors

No of
Respondents

% of
Respondents

Paperboys

30

60

Transportation

4

8

Time

8

16

Any Other

8

16

Total

50

100

 

There
are many factors that are affecting on the distribution of newspapers. In that
demand of paper boys are the major factor because of the irregular attendance
and of boys and they left job without any intimation. Out of 50 respondents
30(60%) of the respondents said that they faced lot of challenges with paper
boys, 4(8%) respondents said that Transportation also one of the problem and
8(16%) respondents said that time is also one constraint in distribution
process and remaining respondents said that other problems like collecting
subscription fee, lack of identity etc.

6.
Satisfaction towards Incentives given by the newspaper organisation

Satisfaction

No of
Respondents

% of
Respondents

Yes

28

56

No

22

44

Total

50

100

                        

Satisfaction is the most important
factor in any business or job; it may either in Job or in receiving suitable
incentives for the work. From the above data most of the respondents are
satisfied towards their incentives. Out of 50 respondents 28(56%) of
respondents are satisfied for the incentives given by the newspaper
organisation and 22(44%) of respondents are not satisfied with the incentives.

7.
Selection criteria for Distribution Agents by the Newspaper Organisation

Criteria

No of
Respondents

% of
Respondents

Experience

10

2

Investment

40

98

Popularity

0

0

Any Other

0

0

Total

50

100

 

 

The
above data illustrates that the selection of distribution agents by the
newspapers organisation is on investment basis that are deposit by the agents.
Out the 50 respondents 40(98%) of respondents are selected depending on
investment made to organisation and only 10(2%) of respondents are selected
through experience basis. There is no use of popularity and remaining things.

8.
Influence the customers

Influence

No of
Respondents

% of
Respondents

Yes

32

64

No

18

36

Total

50

100

 

The
above data describes that 32(64%) of the respondents are influence the
customers for increasing their incentives and subscriptions and 18(36%) of the
respondents are not interest to influence the customers.

9.
Expectations from organisations

Expectations

No of Respondents

% of
Respondents

Increase percentages on unsold

20

40

Timely Payments

14

28

Quick Response

4

8

In Time Delivery

6

12

Any Others

6

12

Total

50

100

 

As
an agent they expected some facilities from newspaper organisation. Out of 50
respondents 20(40%) of respondents expected increase in percentages on unsold
copies of newspapers, 14(28%) of respondents expected timely payments on
unsold, 4(8%) of respondents expected quick response from management and
remaining 6(12%) of the respondents are expected in time delivery of newspapers
in point and the same percent of respondents expected increase of incentives,
identity etc. 

10.
Collection of Feedback from the readers

 

No of
Respondents

% of
Respondents

Yes

34

68

No

16

32

Total

50

100

 

From
the above data it clears that 34(68%) of the respondents are collected feedback
from the readers about their delivery of newspaper, content and coverage of
news in newspapers which helps to increase the business, 16(33%) of the
respondents are not collected any feedback from the readers about their
service.

11.
Customers are happy with delivery of newspaper

 

No of
Respondents

% of
Respondents

Strongly Agree

24

48

Agree

14

28

Neutral

6

12

Disagree

6

12

Strongly Disagree

0

0

Total

50

100

 

The
above data illustrates that 24(48%) of the respondents strongly agreed with
that their customers are satisfied with the time of newspaper delivery, 14(28%)
of the respondents are agreed, 6(12%) of the respondents said that neutral and
only 6(12%) of the respondents are disagreed i.e. their customers are not happy
with the time of newspaper delivery.

12.
High Demand intake of Newspapers

 

No of
Respondents

% of
Respondents

Strongly Agree

16

32

Agree

14

28

Neutral

10

20

Disagree

0

0

Strongly Disagree

10

20

Total

50

100

 

The
above data illustrates the demand of newspapers in market. Out of the 50
respondents 16(32%) of respondents are strongly agreed i.e. there is a high
demand for newspapers, 14(28%) of the respondents agreed and 10(20%) of the
respondents are neutral with the statement. Only 10(20%) of the respondents are
strongly disagree with the statement.

13.
Changes in customer preferences impact on newspaper

 

No of
Respondents

% of
Respondents

Strongly Agree

20

40

Agree

14

28

Neutral

8

16

Disagree

4

8

Strongly Disagree

4

8

Total

50

100

For
every newspaper organisation reader/customer is one of the valuable assets. The
above data describes the customer change one product to another depending on
their preferences which may effect on the business. The 20(40%) of the
respondents are strongly agreed i.e. changes in customer preference affected on
newspapers, 14(28%) of the respondents agreed and 8(16%) of the respondents are
neutral with the statement. Only 4(8%) of the respondents are strongly disagreed
as well as disagreed with the statement.

14.  Impact of Online distribution on Print
Newspaper

 

No of
Respondents

% of
Respondents

Strongly Agree

16

32

Agree

12

24

Neutral

8

16

Disagree

8

16

Strongly Disagree

6

12

Total

50

100

 

The
above data illustrates the competition with online and other social media
impact on print newspaper. Out of the 50 respondents 16(32%) of respondents are
strongly agreed i.e. there is a high competition for print newspapers with
online newspapers as well as other media, 12(24%) of the respondents agreed and
8(16%) of the respondents are neutral with the statement. Only 8(16%) of the
respondents are disagreed and 6(12%) of the respondents are strongly disagreed
with the statement i.e. still print newspapers have their own credibility in
reader’s mind.

 

15.
Late Delivery and price effect on Newspaper distribution

 

No of
Respondents

% of
Respondents

Strongly Agree

14

28

Agree

12

24

Neutral

6

12

Disagree

8

16

Strongly Disagree

10

20

Total

50

100

 

The
above data describes the factors that are affecting on distribution of
newspapers. 14(28%) of respondents are strongly agreed i.e. hike in
subrciptions fee and late delivery must effected on distribution network,
12(24%) of the respondents agreed and 6(12%) of the respondents are neutral
with the statement. Only 10(20%) of the respondents are strongly disagreed as
well as 8(16%) of the respondents are disagreed with the statement.

Conclusion:

The
distribution network plays a pertinent role in strengthening the every
newspaper organisation. In time delivery of newspapers to the destine readers
is not an easy task. It requires proper functioning of distribution boys by the
distribution agents. There are many factors that are affecting the newspaper
distribution process. The factors are like weather conditions, paper boy’s
demand, vehicles etc. Needless to say any and every newspaper organisation can
grow and survive only if it has proper and effective distribution system,
because Newspaper is perishable goods which have a life period of 24 hours. So
the bundles of the newspaper should reach in time to dropping facility, which
is the accessing place of the agents. This enables the distribution agents to
sort out and arrange the papers in area wise for timely delivery of newspapers
to the customers.

References:

www.google.com

www.abc.org

www.RNI.org

www.exchange4media.com

***************************************************************************

·        
* L.Hemalatha, Research Scholar in the
Dept of Communication and Journalism, Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam,Tirupati.

 

·        
**Prof.C.Vani, Dept of Communication and
Journalism, Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam, Tirupati.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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