CHAPTER needs two interactive processes between word recognition

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF
RELATED LITERATURE

In this chapter the writer
would like to correlate some essential points with the present study. This
study includes some relevant theoretical reviews from related literature. In
detail, this chapter explains about the definition and purpose of reading,
reading skills, cooperative learning, Jigsaw technique, the implementation of Jigsaw
technique, Jigsaw II technique, and the other types of Jigsaw technique.

2.1.Reading

Reading
is the making meaning from written text which needs the coordination between
the word recognition and comprehension. Linse (2005) states that reading is a process of making sense and constructing
meaning from printed words. The process of involving the activation of
relevant knowledge and related language skills to accomplish an information
from the text. Chastain (1988) said that reading requires that the reader
focuses on the materials and integrates acquired knowledge and skills to
comprehend what is written (as cited in Motallebzadeh, 2011).

Reading is one of learning skills that includes
perception and thought. It needs two interactive processes between word
recognition from text and readers’ comprehension. Grabe
and Stoller (2011) say that reading is ability of drawing meaning from printed
page and interpreting the information appropriately.

 

 

2.1.1       
Purpose of Reading

Reading
is essential to help human’s insight in life progress. Slavin, (2006) said that
reading learning in the early ages is one of the most important of all
developmental tasks, both because other subjects depend on reading and because
in our society school success is so often equated with reading success. Reading
is useful for students’ language development (Harmer, 2007).

Reading
is useful for language acquisition. The more students read, the better they understand.
It positively impacts the vocabulary knowledge, on students’ spelling and
writing.

Reading
texts also afford great instance for English writing. At different times
teacher can encourage students to focus on vocabulary, grammar or punctuation. Teacher
can use reading material to demonstrate the way teacher constructs sentences,
paragraphs and whole texts. Students then have good models to their own
writing.

Lastly,
good reading texts can introduce interesting topics, stimulate discussion,
excite imaginative responses and provide the springboard for well-rounded, and fascinating
lessons.

 

2.2     
Reading skill

Reading
is very important in order to enhance the human knowledge. The skills of
reading have to be developed so the student can read things from many types of
text. In taking sense of the text, cognitive process in the reading skill is
used.

The  skill 
of  reading  is 
used  by  the 
reader  to  anticipate 
text  information, selecting key
information, organize and mentally summarize information, monitor
comprehension,  repair  comprehension 
breakdowns,  and  match 
comprehension output  to  the 
reader goals (Grabe, 2009). Every reader has their own way of reading
which is appropriate with them. The teacher should give some skills to the
students to make them comprehend text easily. Using the skills, the students
may increase the pleasure and effectiveness of reading activity.

There
are two major skills of reading (Brown, 2004: 187-188). They are micro-skills
and macro-skills. The readers, in micro-skills, must have skills when they deal
with graphemes and orthographic patterns and linguistic signals. While in the
macro-skills, the readers need to make use of their discourse knowledge, communicative
functions of written texts, inference skill, scanning and skimming techniques.
The macro skills will help the readers to comprehend a text well.

There
are skills of reading from other experts. One of the experts is Mikulecky
(2008) who proposes reading skills. The several skills can be seen in the table
below.

Table
2.1. Reading Skills and the Purposes.

No

Skills

Purpose

1.

Automatic decoding

Students can recognize a word at a glance.

2.

Previewing and predicting

Students are able to guess the meaning of the text
by looking at the text a quick once over.

3.

Identifying purposes

Students are able to predict what the form and
context of the text will be.

4.

Specifying Purposes

Students are able to know why the text is being
read.

5.

Scanning

Students are able to find out the specific information
in a text by looking at the text very rapidly.

6.

Recognizing topics

Students are able to
find out what the text tells about after reading and comprehending the text.

7.

Locating the topic sentences

Students are able to find out a topic sentence in
a text.

8.

Making inference by use evidence

Students are able to infer main ideas of the text
and can show the evidence that supports their inference.

9.

Guessing the meaning of unknown words from the
context

Students are able to guess the meaning of unknown
word from the context.

10.

Skimming

Students are able to process a text rapidly at
many levels in order to get an overall picture of it.

11.

Paraphrasing

Students are able to paraphrase the text to help
them understand the text by using their own words.

12.

Summarizing

Students are able to shorten the text by retaining
and re-stating the main idea by leaving out details.

13.

Drawing conclusion

Students 
are  able  to 
put  together  the 
information from  several  parts 
of  the  text 
and  induce  new 
or additional ideas.

14.

Reading critically

Students are able to judge the accuracy of the
text with respect to what the reader already knows and distinguish facts or
opinions.

15.

Reading faster

Students are able to read fast enough to allow the
brain to process the input.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                        

2.3     
Cooperative Learning

Cooperative
learning is a teaching and learning method that emphasizes the attitude or
behavior in working or helping the organized cooperation structure within a
group, which consists of two or more people. According to Lie (2010), it is a
model of learning in which students in cooperative learning situations are
encouraged and expected to do the same thing together, and they must coordinate
their efforts to complete the task. It is built upon the philosophy of homo homini socius which defines that
human beings are social creatures. It is essentially required for human life.

In
implementation of cooperative learning, the role of teacher is different from
the traditional method where teachers are the main focus. This method uses
learner-centered that students work actively in class. Richard and Rogers
(2001) say that teachers have important role in classroom that is being the
facilitator of learning. They give students tasks and assist them also take control
the teaching learning process.

 

2.4     
Jigsaw technique

The
techniques of cooperative learning method in teaching and learning process are
various; Jigsaw is one of those techniques. It is a technique of learning
process where students are divided into small group. Then they are given some
material as an expert to be shared in the new combining group. They explain to
the combine group until getting all of the materials. Sugianti (2016) said that
the Jigsaw technique is like the pieces of puzzle which is collected to make a
complete picture.

In
Jigsaw technique based on Rusman (2008), students have opportunities to express
their opinions, and process the information also improve their communication
skills. Each member of the groups has responsibility to get a successful team
work and the complete material learning. This should be shared to their own
group.

 There are several steps in the Jigsaw technique
implementation in classroom (Aronson,
2000). The first is that the students separate from the first  groups and form new groups with the other
students who have same responsible in preparing the same subjects which called
an expert group. In this group, each student has responsibility to report about
what they have discussed in the expert group, so in the expert group they learn
not only about understanding their own subject but also learn how to teach the
subject to their friend. In the last activity the students ask to present some
activities in order to unify students’ learning.

 

2.4.1       
The Implementation of Jigsaw Technique

In
teaching reading which uses Jigsaw technique, there are several activities that
is designed by Elliot Aronson in the early 1978. They are the division of group
and assignment or task, expert group working, and Jigsaw group working.

a.      
Grouping and
division of the task

The
class is divided into groups depend on the amount of the text. This group is
called as the home group. Students are distributed the text which consists of
different information but it still related to each other and it constructs the
topic.

b.     
Work in the
expert group

After
reading their own text, students are asked to make a new group based on them
who have the same text. It is called as expert teams. Teacher ask the expert
team to discuss the text and each students study together and could make
opinion to share. They also make conclusion of its discussion.

c.      
Working in the Jigsaw
group

Students
who work in expert teams are asked to come back to their home team. It also
called as the Jigsaw group. Each member of the Jigsaw group are needed to
explain what they have learnt in expert team to each other. They have to take
the responsibility to teach their friends.

From
those steps above, the writer would say that those three steps are essential. They
must be considered to be implemented
sequentially. When one of the steps is not applied then it will be odd and the
learning process is not effective.

 

2.5       
Jigsaw II Technique

The
implementation of Jigsaw II which was developed by Robert Slavin in 1986. In
this technique, students read the material to get the large view of the
information before they answer the given expert sheet and also get a test
before returning to the home group. There are five steps of jigsaw II
implementation (Kam-wing, 2004). This technique divides the students into small
(4 – 6 students) heterogeneous (mixed in ability and gender) that consists of several
steps:

Step
1: Reading. Each students is given the similar set of materials related to
the topic and an expert sheet. For example, for  groups 
of  four,  the 
expert  sheet  consists of  four 
questions,  each  of 
which focuses on one of  the
four  topics of  the reading materials. Every member of
the group needs to answer one of the questions from reading the relevant
piece of the materials. The reading of the materials can be made as
homework before the class to save the lesson time alternatively,
particularly when the materials are long (Slavin, 1995).
Step
2: Expert Group Discussion. For members who are exercising the same
question in the expert sheet, they make an expert group. In the process of
discussion, each member of expert group can make notes in order to
stimulate their explanation of the discussion in home group. In this
stage, the expert groups may get a proficiency test before returning to
their home groups related to the topic they have studied in order to know
the depth of their knowledge.
Step
3: Home Group Reporting. After discussing in the expert group, students
return to the home group to teach the lesson that they got. The teacher
may make a short whole class discussion after students shared the lesson
each other for clarifying doubts, and for rousing additional discussion of
the topic.
Step
4: Testing. All students take a short test after mastering the materials.
The individual test scores are then counted as development scores by
comparing with the previous scores that stand for students’ past
performance.
Step
5: Group Recognition. Every member of the group will be given a group
reward if they reach the high score from the averages. They get similar
reward without regard to their individual performance in the test. The aim
is to reinforce their cooperation.

This
table 2.2. compares the stages of the original Jigsaw technique and Jigsaw II
technique based on Holliday (2000), Kam-wing (2004), and Sahin (2010).

Table
2.2 The comparison stages of the Jigsaw I and Jigsaw II technique

Stages

Jigsaw

Jigsaw
II

1

Formation of home groups

Formation of home groups

2

 

Reading relevant material

3

Giving the groups of experts the units of work

Giving the each member of group the expert sheet

4

Expert groups research their expertise subjects
before they return to their home groups

Expert groups research
their expertise subjects and get a short test before they return to their
home groups 

5

Students in expert groups return to their home
groups to share what they have learnt with their friends. 

Students in expert groups return to their home
groups to share what they have learnt with their friends.

6

Individual evaluation and grading.

Individual evaluation and grading.

 

2.6       
Other Types of Jigsaw Techniques

Since the original Jigsaw strategy by Elliot Aronson
was developed, other educators have improved it with their own variations such
as Jigsaw II by Slavin (1987); Jigsaw III by Stahl (1994); Jigsaw
IV by Holliday (2000); Reverse Jigsaw by Hedeen (2003); and Subject Jigsaw by
Doymus (2007). The
difference between the developed Jigsaw and the original Jigsaw is the stage
activities.

Jigsaw
III technique is developed by Robert J. Stahl in 1994. Basically, it has the
same stages with two previous techniques which are original Jigsaw and Jigsaw
II. The only different thing is the teacher’s review stage Holliday (2000).
After students return to the home group and teach the lessons from their expert
group, teacher gives conclusion or review about the process of whole group.

Jigsaw
IV technique is the improvement of Jigsaw III developed by Holliday (2000). The
introduction given first and some quizzes are given to the expert groups. There
are also additional features such as review process and re-teaching of any
material that wasn’t sufficiently discussed in the group work (Holliday, 2000).

The
Jigsaw techniques was developed further by other experts. Reverse Jigsaw was
expanded by Timothy Hedeen in 2003 which is meant to facilitate understanding
of the range of students’ interpretations, such as perceptions and judgments
(Hedeen, 2003). Then, in 2007, Kemal Doymus developed the subject Jigsaw
technique (Sahin, 2010).

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