Conventional potentially beneficial miRNA before implementation might allow

Conventional periodontitis therapy mainly focusses on mechanic removal of plaque.
Therefore, scaling and root planing as well as instructionsfor oral hygiene and antibiotic
treatment are included to prevent further progression of periodontal tissue damage.
Severe tissue degradation is treated surgically via guided tissue regeneration,
application of growth factors or dental implants to support tissue regeneration.
Nevertheless, clinical treatment aiming for complete and permanent regeneration of
periodontal tissues is challenging (Chen et al., 2012). Consequently, there is a high
demand to develop new approaches. Promising treatment strategies are discussed and
cover (I) the implementation of adult stem cells, (II) gene therapy, (III) electrical
stimulation to support osteogenesis, (VI) application of chemical substances to induce
tissue regeneration or to attenuate inflammation, and (V) antimicrobial therapy via
ultrasonic or oxygen treatment (Elangovan et al., 2009; Kumar et al., 2012; Ramseier et
al., 2012; Gaffen et al., 2014; Bright et al., 2015).
Numerous studies on the impact of stem cells on tissue regeneration were performed.
Bright and colleagues (2015) reviewed the application of periodontal ligament stem cells
in different animal models, i.e., dog, rat, pig and sheep. It was shown that significant
improvement in bone, cementum and connective tissue regeneration was achieved.
Additionally, transfection of stem cells with potentially beneficial miRNA before
implementation might allow influencing periodontal tissue regeneration or
inflammatory modulation in terms of stimulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine release.
Currently only little is known on the use of dental stem cells in the inflammation setup,
and further studies are urgently necessary.
Furthermore, anti-inflammatory treatment could prevent massive tissue damage
beforehand or after conservative plaque removal. It is known that inflammation
resolving mediators like resolvins have regulatory impact on immune cells. Resolvins are
endogenously produced from Omega-3 fatty acids, and resolvins of D1 and E1 are well
studied. These pro-resolving resolvins decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine release,
PMN activity, transmigration and release of reactive oxygen species, while promoting
anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion, antimicrobial clearance and apoptosis of PMNsĀ