Disasters a specific scenario (Public Safety Canada, 2015).

Disasters have always been caused by the
activities of man or other organisms taking a toll on the state of nature,
sometimes on a sudden occurrence and sometimes its effects slowly increase
through time (USAID, 2011). Mainly, human advancements like urbanization and
technological developments affect these changes that affect nature, which in
turn causes the disasters and hazards that humans experience to this day. These
disasters have a hand in setting human advancement to hinder.


Disaster mitigation is
the term used for a set of methodology on which eliminate or reduce the risks
or even the impacts itself caused by hazards in a specific area for a specific
scenario (Public Safety Canada, 2015). Disaster mitigation may vary according
to a specific hazard, human or natural, or they may also be approaches which
apply to many disaster scenarios. The United Nations International Strategy for
Disaster Reduction or UNISDR (2009) defines resilience as the “ability of a system, community or society
exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the
effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the
preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions”.
The ecosystem or area’s ability to “resile” depends on its manpower and
resources available and organizational direction, which dictates the state of
the area’s closeness to its “original state” whether it is close or far from


Philippines is a small
archipelagic country located in between the south china sea and northwest
pacific ocean, that is composed of 7107 islands across 1850km from north to
south, total coastline of 235,973km long, of a total land area of approximately
300,000 sq. km., to which land forms vary from flat fields that grow
agricultural crops for food production, to numerous hills and valleys, and a
vast amount of mountains. The Philippines experience varied temperatures and
precipitation, to which climatic status is further affected by alternating
rotation of drought and flood. Typhoons often pass through this archipelagic
country with varying levels of intensity among the provinces across the country
(Human Development Network, 2013).


The Philippines is among
the most disaster-prone countries among all the others. It lies within the
“Pacific Ring of Fire”, which scientists refer to a region of the Earth wherein
tectonic plates often shift and grind on one another often causing varying
levels of seismic activity across the country, causing historic disastrous
earthquakes and volcanic eruptions throughout the Philippine history. Other
than seismic activities, Philippines also often experience numerous typhoons and
tidal waves because it is located in the most active typhoon belt of the
Pacific (Steinberg D.J., 2000). Having these disasters occur in the country
affect the very livelihood of the Filipino people, but inhabitants of this
beautiful country remain to be hopeful and positive despite the tragedies that
befall on the citizens.


(Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration)
devised a system on naming typhoons that enter the Philippine Area of
Responsibility. According to the weather bureau, the names for the 2017
typhoons that entered the PAR were named on a predetermined list to which order
is based on its order of entering the PAR. A specific system was also devised
by the weather bureau in identifying the intensity of the typhoon, signals 1
through 5, which has corresponding characteristics such as intensity of impacts
of the winds and its speed.


            During 2009, typhoon Ondoy (Ketsana)
hit the philippines and was dubbed as one of the worst typhoons
which caused disastrous flooding in NCR and nearby provinces (Olan, 2014;
Romulo, 2009). More than 4.9 million people were affected by this typhoon
while  464 people were killed, 529
injured and 37 missing. The typhoon and flooding caused 11 billion pesos worth
of damage to the agriculture and infrastructures. The flooding also caused an
outbreak of leptospirosis, which was more than half of the year’s reported
cases. Typhoon Milenyo
(Xangsane) was the 2006’s 13th tropical cyclone that hit
the Philippines, which caused flooding in NCR and regions IV-VII, that caused
6.6 billion pesos worth of infrastructural and agricultural damage to the areas
affected (GMA, 2009). Typhoon
Glenda (Rammasun) was one of the most recent typhoon that shook the
Philippines, leaving a staggering damage worth 38 billion pesos on agriculture
and infrastructures. During the typhoon, the total numbers were more than 4.6
billion people were
affected, 106 killed, 1250 injured, and 5 missing (NDRRMC, 2014).


experiences numerous disastrous typhoons resulting in Floods, rendering the
affected areas difficult to cope with the socio-economic and Physical impacts.
Laguna is one of the most affected areas in the Philippines by flooding caused
by devastating typhoons that hit the country. Municipalities around the Laguna
lake especially Los Banos and Bay are highly flood-prone areas (Lasco &
Zamora, 2015). Bay is a town surrounding the Lake that has 4080 hectares of
land area and is divided to 15 villages or barangay,
one of which is brgy. Santo Domingo (Bantayan, et. al., 2014).




                The results
of the study will be used to develop flood-risk management
strategies for barangay Santo Domingo. Flood Hazard map 
(with purok location) and evacuation site map  will serve as 
tools for flood management and disaster risk reduction.



To determine association of typhoon
awareness, mitigation, and resilience practices with the socio-economic profile
of the residents of Barangay Santo Domingo, Bay, Laguna;

To locate the Flood-prone areas and
potential evacuation sites in Barangay Santo Domingo using GIS;

To develop recommendations to promote
awareness and reduce the impacts of typhoons in Barangay Santo Domingo.