During which supply blood within the interventricular septum

During an exercise
test, the heart must compensate from rest to facilitate increased blood flow to
the body/muscles.  In doing so, the heart
tissue itself must be supplied with enough blood, oxygen, and nutrients to meet
such heightened metabolic demands related to cardiac performance.  The cardiovascular system is discussed with
having an acute response to exercise,

and how the body adapts. With
significant qualities the cardiac cycle contains is the blood flow, blood
pressure, heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output.

Blood flow is
provided to the heart by two coronary arteries that raises from the left aortic
sinus.  The left coronary artery, raises
from the left aortic sinus, has major branches and one that is known as the
anterior interventricular artery, or the anterior descending artery,  which supply blood within the
interventricular septum and anterior walls of both right and left
ventricle.  The right coronary artery
raises from the right aortic sinus, along with major branches to supply the heart
with blood, majority is the supplying to the atrioventricular node. The
arteries branch out into smaller arteries, then arterioles, that lie between
the myocardial muscle tissue supplying with blood.  The myocardium
needs a constant supply of oxygen in order for the heart to continually pump.  Myocardium capillaries are branches of cardiac
veins which join to form the coronary sinus, an enlarged vein which empties
into the right atrium (Cardiovascular, n.d.). 
With the heart having three layers; the
outer layer is called epicardium and it stops excess enlargement or movement of
the heart, the middle layer is called the myocardium, and its job is to
contract and forcing the cardiac cycle. The endocardium, within the heart that
is a thin layer which lines and the inside chambers of the heart and the valves.
The majority of the heart is myocardium, and is the thickest wall for cardiac
function (Allen & Harper, 2014), more so in the left ventricle to give
enough pressure to pump blood into the aorta, and supply the systemic circuit. During
strenuous exercise, the coronary blood flow increases up to 4-6times. The maximum
increase in coronary flow above resting levels is coronary flow reserve. The
bases of myocardial oxygen is the heart rate, myocardial tension, inotropic
state (contractility), and vascular resistance which is mainly modulated by
metabolic factors and neural stimuli, with circulating vasoactive substances (Movahed,
et. al., 2009).

The functioning descriptions described stated by Allen and
Harper, of the Physiology response and cardiovascular changes during exercise
include the following:

·     
Heart Rate increases

·     
Increased sympathetic stimulation

·     
Decreased parasympathetic stimulation

·     
Cardio Output Increases

·     
Stroke Volume increases

·     
End Systolic Volume increases

·     
Pulse Pressure increases

·     
Mean Arterial Pressure increases

·     
total peripheral resistance decreases

·     
Oxygen extraction increases

·     
Blood Flow to heart, muscle and skin increases

·     
Blood Flow to brain increases (slightly)

·     
Blood Flow to other Viscera decreases
 

 

The force that the
blood pushes against the internal walls of the heart and expanding the blood
vessels is known as the blood pressure. Arterial blood pressure increases and
decreases to accommodate the cardiac cycle. Systolic pressure is increasing
during the ventricular contraction to force the exertion of blood, and
diastolic pressure the ventricle relaxing having blood return to be
oxygenated.  Due to the higher cardio
output, and an increase in heart rate rises, the systolic pressure increases
and the diastolic pressure stays the same or is decreased during exercise by
having the vasodilation of vessels.  With
the amount of exercise the person does over time, the heart begins to
accommodate to the pressure and therefore leads to reduced systolic and
diastolic pressures (Allen, Harper, 2014)

In healthy humans
during maximum exercise heart rate can be increased up to 200bpm. 

The perception of the increase in heart rate is proficiently
accompanied by the vagus nerve withdrawal and yet stimulated by the sympathetic
system.  The stroke volume also increases
at the onset of exercise due to the increased myocardial contraction and
depending on posture (upright vs. supine) how much blood is returned to the
central circulation via the skeletal muscle pump which acts to empty the veins
in the lower extremities where blood pools due to gravity Equally, the stroke
volume increases in respiration can also serve to improve blood return to the
heart (Joyner & Casey, 2015). Factors that affect the heart rate are
the autonomic nervous system, chemicals, temperature, emotions, gender, and
age.

Exercise is
increasingly used to decrease many illnesses and diseases. Throughout exercise
testing there are several changes that are encountered by functional aspects to
the heart. cardio output is increased due to a larger increase in the heart
rate, and smaller increase of stroke volume. 
While the baseline of cardio output is 5 L/min, during exercise, cardio
output may increase to a maximum value to 35 L/min.  Most cardiac output goes to the exercising
muscle, the heart, and also the skin to disperse heat.  Due to the amount of blood flow to these
major organs vasodilation occurs, while the digestive system and kidneys have
vasoconstriction is the reaction of the sympathetic system.  The total peripheral resistance to blood flow
is decreased due to the vasodilation of arterioles towards the muscles, heart,
and skin of the body.  The counteraction is
that there is an increased blood flow return through the veins due to the
muscular activity and so that will increase the cardiac output. The body itself
of cardiovascular to muscular changes in blood flow are inhibited by many other
factors including, exercise centers in the brain, local chemical changes in the
muscle, mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors in muscle and arterial
baroreceptors (Movahed, et. al., 2009).

In conclusion to
the acute response of the heart during an exercise, there are many factors that
go along with the cardiovascular system. 
With guaranteed supply, having enough oxygen and nutrients for the
demands of the cardiac cycle to the heart achieve performance. Taking the heart
from being at rest to an exertion applied can be a lot to handle though the
heart adapts and grows stronger. 

 

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