?Early childhood comprises the phase of human development
from the prenatal stage and develops into the early fundamental grades.
?Throughout a child’s beginning years, there are four
principal fields of development which includes: physical, cognitive, social and
?The care and services of families and communities are
required to promote their development
?Children grow rapidly during their infant years, and
positive or negative encounters have connections for children’s well-being,
school willingness and progress in life.
?To understand each stage of the child’s development, parents
can simply seize the bright moments in everyday life to heighten the child’s
intellectual growth, physical, cognitive, and social development, as well as
?Baby and toddlerhood: childbirth to 2 years
?Early Infancy: 2-6 years
?Middle childhood: 7-12 years
?Adolescence or Teen: 13-18 years
?Physical growth refers to an increase in body size, body
proportions, appearance, brain development, motor development, perception
capacities, physical health of the whole body or any of its parts.
?It is a quantitative change in the child’s body.
?Cognitive development refers to a progressive increase in
skill, thought processes and intellectual abilities including attention,
memory, problem solving, imagination, creativity, academic and everyday
knowledge, meta-cognition, and language.
?It is a qualitative change in the child’s functioning.
?Social Development applies to self-knowledge (self-esteem,
meta-cognition, sexual identity, ethnic identity), self-regulation, recognition
and expression of emotions, moral reasoning, temperament, knowing others,
interpersonal skills, and associations.
?By the third month, the baby is able to lift his or her
head and chest unassisted whiles laying on his stomach. The baby’s motor
development begins and can purposefully open and close his hands.
?When babies are between 4 and 7 months, they can roll over
and begins crawling between the 8th and 12th month. Walking also begins in the
?At 2 years, the baby’s motor development encompasses a
massive breakthrough and at this point, he or she can walk unsupported, run,
and roam up and down the stairs.
?Other small motor developments that happen between the ages
1 and 2 years also involve writing with a crayon and building with blocks.
•The Cognitive Development of the child can be noted and
estimated through observation. The baby’s mind is continuously maturing and
operating in various ways.
•Throughout the first two years of the baby’s life, neural
developments that drive to enhanced cognition, or thought and rational thinking
skills are evolving.
•Between 4 and 7 months, the baby begins to recognize mere
cause-and-effect systems and object stability, implying that something still
exists even if he or she cannot perceive it.
•At 2 years, most toddlers can classify objects by
fundamental patterns and colors. Moreover, toddlers close to 24 months have the
strength to act or perform a creative activity.
?Children are sometimes perceived as unfriendly creatures
but in reality, they are developing their social skills.
?At this stage Mom, Dad and other close relatives are the
?At age one, children explore with playthings such as toys
?Even though at 2 years children play alongside other kids
and communicate with them, they are not able to associate more socially.
?As youngsters develop, they gain control over their
balance, development and fine-motor skills turn out to be progressively
?Kids turn out to be progressively free and this age and
assignments needing equalization and skill start to rise.
?With a specific end goal to enhance their motor
development, it is fundamental to give kids a lot of chances to hone their
recently rising capacities.
? Giving children the time, space and assets they have to
move balls, run, hop and adjust.
?Keep in mind that the child’s well-being is important.
?As babies and youngsters turn out to be progressively
engaged and all the more physically dynamic, it is crucial to have some
fundamental wellbeing precautionary measures set up.
? Stairway walks, electrical outlet covers and parental
perception are all approaches to limit dangers while as yet giving children the
flexibility they have to investigate and play.
?Guardians ought to likewise guarantee that their newborn
child has a lot of safe objects neat to work on to get a handle on.
?In the years of 2 and 6 years, children undergo slower
development rate than their early stages.
? The mind progresses from 70 to 90 percent of its grown-up
weight. 2 to 3 inches in stature and around 5 pounds in weight every year.
?Boys grow slightly larger than girls Children then become
taller and leaner by way of losing their baby fat.
?By end of preschool years, youngsters start to lose
essential “baby” teeth.
?Rapid language development
?Symbolic thought development
?Sort objects by category (i.e., animals, flowers, trees,
etc.), actively seek answers to questions, learn by observing and
listening to instructions , organize objects by size and shape, sees how
to gathering and match question as indicated by shading.
?Commonly, it’s not shocking for two-year-olds to act
modestly around others, particularly outsiders.
?While this is a stage when guardians need to energize
autonomy and social collaboration.
?Allow your kid the time he needs to feel warm with a
circumstance and guide him into new conditions by setting him up heretofore and
?The kids begin to gain new aptitudes in numerous zones like
motor skills, active play, and practicing speech.
? Motor skills are physical aptitudes or capacities. Motor
abilities, which incorporate running, bouncing, hopping, turning, skipping,
tossing, adjusting, and moving, require the use of substantial activities.
? Fine motor skills, which include drawing, writing, and
tying shoelaces, include the use of little substantial developments.
? Both gross and fine motor skills create and are sharpened
amid early childhood; in any case, motor skills grow all the more gradually in
?Inappropriate Supervision: In many cases, youngsters are
sent to the play area without proper supervision.
?It is, therefore, challenging to keep kids from harming
themselves in typical play, yet a careful gaze and a delicate cautioning could
spare them from a scratched knee, bruised eye, or broken leg.
The key reason for proper supervision is to guarantee
security and to concentrate on damage counteractive action.
?Physical development for young adults between the ages of 7
and 12 years is normally depicted by various growth patterns.
? These shifts can be related to hormones, sexuality,
eugenics, nutrition and environment. Prior to adolescence, kids normally have
gained a more slender, more muscular appearance.
? Young kids ordinarily accomplish a relentless rate of
development and increment in tallness at this age. They typically grow taller
achieving a stature of around 2 to 3 inches every year and weight of around 6.5
pounds every year.
?Both genders still have practically identical body shapes
and reach out to the moment that the two sexes accomplish pubescence when kids
sexually form into youths and adults.
?Cognitive development refers to the increasing ability to
utilize thought and reasoning, analyzing and compartmentalizing large sums of
?Given that the standards are connected to solid
illustrations, Piaget indicates that school-age youngsters are extremely better
intelligent than younger children to comprehend coherent principles.
?Cognitive development, therefore, examines the
information-processing aspect of cognitive development, beginning with a
description of sensory, working, and long-term picture.
?School children begin to make social observations and
within that, they judge their looks, abilities, and habits in relation to those
?Teachers, then again, can create a healthy environment that
breeds positive development by presenting students with expertise that prompt
?Middle childhood gives youngsters the chance to build
skills and interests in a wide cluster of areas.
?It is also set apart by a few varieties of progress in
learning and judgment. Through this period, children gain their primary
abilities, for example, math and reading skills and become more self-conscious.
?They turn out to be more ready to recollect information and
utilize it to resolve new issues and even adapt to conditions.
?Children start to design, organize activities, assess their
approach, and change their plans and procedures in view of reflection and
?At this phase of their lives, there is a noteworthy risk
for kids who do not get appropriate nutrition and medical attention experience
some form of delay in growth development. A typical example is looking at
youngsters living in a nation where nourishment isn’t a case. Kids living in
this sort if countries have a tendency to become taller when contrasted with
countries encountering issues with regards to nourishment for kids.
?Between puberty, young adults undergo many changes as they
move from youth to teens.
?Early, prepubescent changes happen when the secondary
sexual traits show up.
?Young women muscle to fat ratio increases.
? Young ladies develop bigger breasts.
?Young men penis enlarges.
?Both genders voice changes.
?Young women encounter their first menstrual cycle.
? Body hair develops for both genders.
?When children reach the adolescent age, most children
acquire the capability to understand complex concepts. Examples are Mathematics
?Parents at this point are encouraged to build a
relationship with the young adult without feeling disturbed or frustrated.
? Adolescents at this age develop a more mature sense
?Start to invest more time with companions as compared to
?Begins to frame a personality, through side interests, companions,
school, exercises, clothes, haircuts, music, and so forth.
?Moodiness is common during the search for an individuality.
?More confident and thus are better at withstanding peer
? Need control over more parts of their lives
?Teenagers adopt various approaches to comprehend complex
plans to make it less demanding for themselves.
?They learn through cautious and concentrated application
and better idea. Critical thinking abilities also progress.
? They can think consistently, utilize sound judgment, and
create dynamic considering.
?Many adolescents are at increased risk for depression and
potential suicide attempts, because of pressures and conflicts in their family,
school or social organizations, peer groups, and intimate relationships.
?This presentation will try to teach unexperienced parents
about youth advancement in regards to physical, cognitive, and social
improvement, and additionally abilities and dangers that happen all through different
phases of adolescence.