In including the lifelong relationship between parent and

 

In short, the
parents’ expectations regarding their children’s academic achievement had been influenced
with subsequent achievement (Davis-Kean, 2005). Parenting had important
long-term outcome for the development of characteristic adaptations including the
lifelong relationship between parent and child. Many other aspects of the
environment were also significantly influenced on characteristic adaptations
including peers, the media, educational systems and more (Miller & Votruba-Drzal, 2013).

 

 

In addition,
urban-rural environment result in significant differences in early academic
skills. Furthermore, cognitive stimulation in the home, parenting quality, and
parental childrearing beliefs and academic expectations appeared to be
important predictors of early achievement. Cognitive stimulation in the home,
which includes the provision of educational interactions, activities and
materials enhances language, proficiency, and numeracy skills (Son &
Morrison, 2010). Similarly, high quality parenting in early childhood, which
was characterized by high levels of responsiveness, warmth and consistency
promotes early cognitive and academic development (Lugo-Gil &
Tamis-LeMonda, 2008).  In fact, children
living in more urban areas were closer to a variety of enriching activities,
the frequency in which urban and suburban children were exposed with
stimulating experiences may be greater, thereby raising the quality of their
early learning environments. Lastly, parents’ beliefs and expectations
regarding childrearing and education were contributed to early academic skills.
(Glick et al., 2009).

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Moreover, it might
be harder for rural parents to furnish children with enriching experience and
connections as scattering of people, shortage of services, and recent reduction
of human capital may leave rural families without access to imperative assets
and social capital. However, there were also positive aspects of rural
residence which were increased home-ownership and accessibility of nature
(Wells & Evans, 2003). On the other hand, large cities often known with a
lack of green spaces, crime, overcrowding, pollution, which could be
disadvantages for parenting and early development even though resource
accessibility were not problematic (Evans, 2006). These developmental contexts
over those urban–rural continuum brought about variety in the improvement on
skills.

 

 

Despite the
importance of understanding the influence of factors on child or human
development in general, few studies had considered how urbanity shapes the
development of early academic skills. For instance, rural areas were populated
outside main human resources and often had limited access to development of
essential resources like health care, libraries, and child care (Vernon-Feagans
et al., 2008). Furthermore, over the last few decades, most of young generation
had migrated to urban and suburban areas as high-quality jobs in rural
communities had been reduced (Vernon-Feagans et al., 2008).

 

 

Area
of upbringing provided unique settings for skills development. Early success
may be because of variations in access to sources and childrearing norms and
practices in urban, suburban, and rural areas. Urban, suburban, and rural
regions provided precise settings for child development. Urban–rural continuum differs
in financial status, resources accessibility, and collective human, social, and
cultural capital, all of which had huge and imperative impact for human (Vernon-Feagans
et al., 2008). A few studies explained that urbanity linked to the development
of early educational capabilities, with rural children lagging behind their
urban peers in kindergarten success (Lee & Burkham, 2002).

 

 

Hereditary
factors and inborn play significant role in the process of skills development,
however, acquired and environmental seem to be equally important. The
environment also had a direct impact to personality traits, because
characteristic adaptations were always involved in their expression (McCrae et al., 2000). The significant role
among environmental factors played the conscious impacts. At this point, the
development of skills can be partly or totally controlled in the unfavourable
conditions was seems extremely important to be emphasized. If the child does
not receive a proper support, encouragement and guidance some of the skills can
in such a situation not be disclosed or not be developed. The more such
exposure and stimulation involves the individual, the more intensively skills
develop (Petrykowski et al.,2014).

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