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In the name of godThe Middle East(Political-economic attitude)Supervisor:Dr. Shokri ZadehAuthor:Meade JahaniJanuary 2018Abstract:In today’s world, each region can play an effective role in worldsecurity, economics and politics. Therefore, the focus and attention toeach of them and their capabilities seems necessary.Our selection, a special region called Middle East!Reviewing the challenges and opportunities existing among countriesas well as the foreign policy of their nations.The Middle East countries are always faced with many tribulationsand issues that, with a thorough and analytical look, can determinetheir threat or opportunity. There are important countries in theregion that, because of their sensitive position and oppression and thedesire for independence, they are always faced with other countries inthe world, especially colonialists such as the United States.But really what is the reason for this volume of tendencies, battlesand events?Introduction:The Middle East is an important area in the west of Asia, whichincludes countries such as Iran, Egypt, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, andborders with Turkey from the north, Oman and Yemen from thesouth, Iran from the east, and Egypt and Palestine from the west.Originally the Middle East is the intersection of two seas andthree major continents and the birthplace of prominent prophets andprominent warriors from ancient times and the birthplace of threereligions of Christianity, Islam, and Jews have always fueled thegreed of the conquerors.But in contemporary times, in addition to the traditionalattractions of this area, its legendary wealth (oil) has also increasedthe competition for this piece of earth.In this article, we want to talk about the political relationshipbetween the Middle East countries and the threats and opportunitiesavailable in this influential region.The appellation of the Middle EastThe Middle East term was first introduced in 1902 by anAmerican called Alfred Taylor Mahan to describe the region betweenthe Far East and the near East. He suggested this in an articleabout the Persian Gulf troubles for Britain in the “National Review”publication. Shortly thereafter, the term was used by the London”Times” magazine and then by the official correspondence of theBritish government, then by the governments of England andAmerica during World War I and II.Indeed, if we look at this part of earth from the Europe, this areais neither too far nor close. So, named as the Middle East.In each of the above-mentioned usages of the name of the MiddleEast, changes were made to its boundaries. These changes weredetermined each time depending on the interests of the superpowers.An example was the introduction of the “Great Middle East” term bythe George W. Bush government at the beginning of the twenty-firstcentury. Which reflects a shift in the interests of the West in theMiddle East’s important and strategic area.The significance of the Middle East and its effect on the countries ofthe worldThe Middle East, given the social situation, ethnic and racialdiversity, resources and material resources are of particularimportance.After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in the First World War,the borders of the newly created countries were imposed on the basisof the interests and prerogatives of the colonial powers of Europethat were present in the Middle East without regard to the ethnic,racial and religious issues of the people.Therefore, today, in the Middle East and even North Africa, onecannot find a country that is not in a way with one of its neighbors,for the sake of water, oil, land, and so on.Zbigniew Brzezinski, a prominent theorist of US foreign policyand national security adviser to the former US president, Carter, onthe Middle East and the Persian Gulf says:” This area is similar to a”bowstring” that is drawn to the end and is ready to throw a deadlyshoot to the world. This is the arc from the Horn of Africa toAfghanistan and from Iran to the near east. This “cord” is the centerof the super-powerful competition. And at any moment, the worldmay be ignited by its incitement”.In the twentieth century, this region, on the one hand, was amajor source of energy for the world, and on the other hand, it wasthe focus of some crises and tensions, mainly due to the presence ofIsrael and some of the great powers, especially the United States. Forthis reason, developments in the Middle East region are tied to globalsecurity and international political economy.Strategic situation of the Middle EastThe Middle East comprises the territories and waterways thatare among the most important geostrategic areas of the world.The strategic and military significance of the Middle East has longbeen the focus of world power centers due to its proximity to theIndian Ocean and the Indian Ocean, and the presence of the Marines,such as the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, the Caspian Sea, theBlack Sea and the Persian Gulf.In addition to the existence of strategic canals and straits such asthe Suez Canal (the interface between the Mediterranean and theRed Sea in Egypt), the Strait of Hormuz (connecting the Persian Gulfand the Oman Sea), the Bosphorus and Dardanelle Straits (in thenorthwest of Turkey), the Strait Bab al-Mandeb (the Red Sea in theGulf of Aden in the southwest of Saudi Arabia), the Strait ofGibraltar (connecting the Mediterranean with the Atlantic) hasdoubled the Middle Eastern role. For this reason, domination of thisregion was one of the main conflicts between the two Sovietsuperpowers and the United States during the Cold War.Among the strategic regions of the Middle East, the Persian Gulfand Strait of Hormuz is one of the fourteen major points in the world,and according to the analysts’ theory, the Persian Gulf is the heart ofthe world and its domination is the domination of the entire world.And this is what has been considered by the militarist powersfrom the distant past. With the end of the medieval period in Europe,the beginning of the Renaissance and the knowledge of Europeansfrom the sources of wealth in the Middle East increased theirmotivation to dominate the Persian Gulf, and the Portuguese (in1497), the Dutch (1607), the French (the sixth decade theseventeenth century), England in the 19th and 20th centuries, andthe Americans since 1971, were endeavoring to control it all. Despitethe fact that part of the Persian Gulf oil exports to the Europeanconsumer countries through the pipeline, but daily from the Strait ofHormuz from 15 to 20 million barrels of oil is transported by giant oiltankers, while hundreds of commercial ships daily they pass throughthis waterway.Natural resources, threats or opportunities?Perhaps, at first glance, the connection between natural resources- especially oil and gas – and the main focus of the paper, politicalissues in the Middle East is difficult.But knowing that it is imperative that in today’s world all issues,whether directly or indirectly, affect the policies and interactions ofthe countries of the world together.Of the total oil Sources proven to be fortune in the upcomingworld, 66 percent are available to the Middle Eastern countries.Among these countries, Saudi Arabia is at the forefront with 25percent of its oil reserves. Iraq’s share in world oil reserves is 11percent, Iran’s share is 8 percent, the United Arab Emirate’s share is9 percent, and Kuwait’s share is 9 percent of the world’s totalreserves.The increase in oil consumption and all kinds of energy in thecurrent century represents an increase in demand and, consequently,an increasing rise in the importance of the Middle East region.Because the share of developing countries from this energy supply isestimated at 55%.In 1992, after the end of the Cold War, powerful countries,instead of purely political-military, try to have a political-economicattitude in the sensitive regions of the world.Therefore, natural resources and energy can be considered as themost determinants of security and international and regionalconflicts. The Middle East with huge reserves is very important inthis regard.The domination systems have always been trying to dominatethe area with economic Boycott, the creation of military bases in theregion, the massive sale of military weapons, and the creation of civil,religious wars, with the overthrow of the state.Maintaining and safeguarding this particular situation is veryimportant in today’s world, where national security is tied to energy,and earning income through energy supplies will further ensure thesecurity of the Middle East countries. And to Consequently, thedomineering system faces the failure to achieve its goals. For thisreason, the dominant countries of the world always prevent thespread of revolutions.despite of natural resources, including oil, countries mustseparate their economies from oil and use it simply as any pressureon the West.Advanced countries are trying to invest heavily in the mostimportant and needed industries in the region. And while thisdependence is on their hands, this investment can lead to industriesother than oil and gas, in addition to sustainable growth, a decline independence on oil can also arise. This will be due to the unity andthought of the developing countries of the region.One of the ways that can be effective in improving the MiddleEast economy and its interactions with Western countries is to carryout international gold deals. This would mean a fall in the globalprice of the dollar and the euro and the rise in the price of gold(Western Capital Middle East). This is so damaging to the hegemonythat it can even cause wars.Iran’s politics in the Middle EastIran has always shown in the field of foreign policy that it hasfollowed a completely peaceful approach based on national interestsand the need to pay attention to clear and obvious red lines, and hasnever sought tension with its neighbors or the establishment of warand instability in the region. Foreign policy and sometimes even thedomestic policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran, as one of the mostimportant and influential countries in this strategic area, has directand indirect effects on the Middle East and can be explained withinthe framework of the goals of the system in the international arena.Based on principle 150 of the 10th Chapter of the Constitution,the foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran, based on thenegation of any domination and domination, the maintenance ofuniversal independence and the territorial integrity of the country,the defense of the rights of all Muslims and the lack of commitmentto domineering powers and bilateral peaceful relations with the alliedgovernments.One of the signs of increasing the importance of the region forIranian officials is that Iran’s President Hassan Rouhani, other thanhis trip to New York to attend the UN General Assembly, has nothad any other out-of-area travel. With the aim of increasing regionalrelations, only He has traveled to Middle Eastern countries.The relations between Iran and the countries of the Middle Eastregion have had a great deal of variation, and Iran has never used aspecific strategy for all of them.Relationship between Iran and other countries in the region• Iraq:Iran’s traditional and historical policy toward Iraq cannot beconsidered apart from the experience of the war between the twocountries. Considering this bitter experience, which has been affectingboth countries for a long time, Iran’s key strategy for post-SaddamIraq was that it never returned socially and politically to Iraq in the1980’s.• Syria:The Islamic Republic of Iran, as a regional power in the MiddleEast, has played an active role in managing the country’s unrest as apeaceful solution since the start of the Syrian developmentsalongside Russia. Therefore, the Islamic Republic of Iran hassupported all the options that it includes negotiating, negotiating andpeaceful means to resolve Syrian issues. In contrast, it has opposedthe methods that have proposed foreign intervention or militarystrike against the country.• AfghanistanIn this regard, Iran has suffered from the consequences of the lackof security in Afghanistan, including the large number of Afghanrefugees and the increasing spread of drug trafficking on the easternfrontiers of the Islamic Republic of Iran.• India:Meanwhile, Iran is strengthening its ties with India, although thisnearer is due to the delicate need of cheap oil and gas.• Turkey:On Iran’s relations with Turkey, it should also be acknowledgedthat before the Syrian crisis, although we were seeing TehranAnkara close, the Turkish anti-Syrian policies have driven the twocountries apart.• Persian Gulf statesAbout Iran’s relations with the Arab Gulf states, it can be saidthat this relationship has been, in most cases, friendly and intimate,especially with the fear of the consequences of the failed diplomacy ofthe West over Iran’s nuclear case.Although in recent years, Saudi Arabia has clearly shown itspositions and has been hostile to Iran, supported by the UnitedStates and Israel.• RussiaOver the past years, we have witnessed the expansion of IranRussia relations on a range of issues from nuclear issues tocooperation between the two countries to combat terrorism andresolve various crises, including Syria. The two countries have a lotof abilities and capacities to improve relations. Of course, we can saythat due to regional developments, we see more cooperation betweenthe two countries.Palestine and its special conditions in the regionPalestine is an Arabic and Islamic land, which was formerlyknown as Canaan, with an area of 2724 km2 covering theMediterranean Sea in the west, Lebanon in the north, Syria and theJordan River in the east and the Red Sea and the Sinai Peninsula inthe south and southwest.Palestine is a fertile land with moderate weather. This region isthe site of the emergence of great prophets such as Jesus (AS), Moses(AS) and the passageway and life of Prophet Ibrahim (AS). This landis very sensitive and important in terms of its strategic position as abridge to connect Arab, Islamic countries to Africa.Throughout history, Palestine has been the area of empirestruggle in terms of its privileged geographic location, the fertility ofthe land and the sanctity it possesses.After the First World War in 1919, with the defeat of theOttoman Empire and the disintegration of this vast Islamic land, thePalestinian land is under British patriotism under Britishconspiracy.Guardianship means that the people of the land are so laggingthat they cannot manage themselves, so a country that is capableand comes to the aid of the land and empowers the people of the landin government and ends up with the land to the people of the sameland. But in the case of Palestine, this did not happen properly, andthe Jews, who at that time had a great influence on the British,bought Palestinian lands and overwhelmingly captured many partsof the land. They began a war at the right time to get the rest ofPalestine. Which continues with the resistance of the Palestinianpeople. The war between Palestine and the occupation regime ofJerusalem has been going on for more than half a century in theMiddle East and naturally has many effects, including insecurity, onthe region. In addition, the presence of the Zionist regime is a majorthreat to other countries.So far, many peace treaties have been concluded in the country,none of which have been durable.Current Palestine is divided into three parts:1. The Occupied Territory occupies one million and a hundredthousand Palestinians.2. The West Bank, which has a total area of 5,650 km2 and includesJerusalem, has a population of about one million and a half thousandpeople.3. The Gaza Strip with an area of over 350 km2, with a Palestinianpopulation of about one million and three hundred thousand.Nearly 4 to 5 million Palestinians have been displaced by theZionist regime after the occupation of Palestine and live in Jordan,Syria and Lebanon.What is the role of Iran in the movements and victories of thePalestinian nation?Undoubtedly, the Islamic Revolution of Iran not only played asignificant role in the Islamic Revolution of the Palestinian peoplebut also played a pivotal role in the waking and vigilance of theIslamic world. The Islamic Revolution of Iran has become a model forIslamization, anathema, and the aspiration for the formation of anIslamic government among Islamic nations, challenging andchallenging the West camp and Arab non-democratic leaders. Theywere well aware that the waking of the Islamic world would have thepotential to the detriment of the West and the continuation of theArab leadership. The Islamic Revolution has had a profound impacton the Palestinian Muslim nation in returning to the teachings ofreligion, hoping for its abilities, modeling the Islamic system byPalestinian militants, placing the mosque as the main base forfighting the enemies, setting up unity on the axis of Islam and formThere are jihadi groups (such as Hamas and Islamic Jihad).The intifada is the product of the influence of the struggles of thePalestinian people on the Islamic Revolution.The Palestinian crisis management has long been at the hands of Arabgovernments and leaders of the Palestinian militant organizations,but they have not been able to change the existing equation.With the victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran and the guidanceof Imam Khomeini, who, from the point of view of Islamic resistanceand uncompromising with Israel to the Palestinian issue, broughtabout many changes in this issue.The emergence of ISILAfter the fall of Saddam, bin Laden’s command formed a branch ofal-Qaeda in Iraq, which began to kill the Shiites as fighting America .After the appointment of several commanders and their deaths,Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi eventually became the head of the group. Afterthat, he was able to expand the group in Iraq and Syria. And thencalled the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).Over and over, with the slogan of the Oriental religion, there werea lot of Isis, and they found day by day power and domination over theregion. They did not accept anyone other than themselves, and wereable to establish bases in Iraq and Syria with bullying and killing. TheUnited States, which saw its own interests in ISIL’s power, supportedthem a lot.Eventually, after the massacre of a large number of Syrian,Iranian, and Iraqi forces to confront ISIS, this hated group wasdestroyed in 2017.Although it cannot be said that this risk has been ended forever,because their probability of occurrence with a different name andaddress is always there.New Middle East Challenge, Iraqi KurdistanOn September 25, 2017, the Kurdistan Regional Government ofIraq held a referendum to determine the independence of the centralgovernment of Iraq, calling for the independence of Iraqi Kurdistan.With an optimistic view of this independence, the Kurds couldprovide an independent land that they always wanted to prove theiridentity and, by separating from the Arab land, would be able toovercome the sense of historical injustice they had exercised in theirrightful place. Considerations can also be made for the mainland andthe central government of Iraq. If the separation of the Kurdistanregion could lessen the sectarian violence resulting from culturaldifferences and ethnic desires, it would eliminate the geopoliticalthreats posed by having a minority group inside Iraq. With this view,the combined benefits of the Kurdistan region and the centralgovernment of Iraq can be equal to regional stability.Although some demanded that Kurdistan be independent as soonas possible, many did not think it easy and believed that creating anew government would create instability in the region in the currentsituation.Although each regional and sub regional government always looksat their national interests.For example, the Iraqi government, which has not yet abandoned thedamage caused by the fight against ISIL, does not consider the timenecessary for separating Kurdistan from the point of view of thecollapse of Iraq. The most fundamental challenge for Iraq is the loss ofa large part of the territory to a lesser degree of national power.Secondly, it is very difficult to ignore the oil reserves in the Kurdistanregion for the central government of Iraq. If Baghdad wants to useforce against Kurds in opposition to Kurdistan’s independence, itsinternational image will be undermined. The charge of violenceagainst the Kurds not only provokes international anger, it can alsolead to the loss of Washington’s financial assistance to Baghdad.Despite the lack of interference in the affairs of its neighbors and othernations, Iran also viewed Kurdish minority as a potential threat toKurdistan’s independence, which could turn into a regional crisis.Of course, the Kurds may not be so much in opposition to theneighbors as they can, and supporters of this action can accompanythem. Sponsors, like the United States and Russia, have not alwayslooked to the Middle East for their national interests.Kurdistan’s sensitive position for the United States plays the roleof controlling the three Iraq, Turky and Syria countries. Since thehistorical claims of the Kurds have always been repressed byneighboring countries, they have been reluctant to convey theirdestiny to regional powers and have enjoyed US support.With the separation of the central government, the Kurds will bea good partner for oil deals with Russia, and the Russians will increasetheir strategic position by discovering oil in the land near theirborders.Eventually, a referendum was held on that date, in which 92% ofthe voters voted for separation from Iraq.Of course, this is not a binding result, but Kurdish leaders will allowfurther negotiations in this regard.Conclusion:The Middle East has always attracted the attention of dominantsdue to the existence of rich natural resources, geopolitical importance,and vast expanses.This area has always been a place for insecurity, various kinds ofdisasters, wars and hardships, but its people have always resistedaggression, with the help of each other, and also because of theirattitude to life and the rejection of oppression. And to the extentpossible, they are not allowed to be colonized.Though there are still many problems in the area that need to beaddressed by thinking appropriate and efficient solutions and creatinga safe and prosperous region for life.References:An adaptation of various sources such as:1- ISLAMIC REVOLUTION STUDIES, A Quarterly Scientific Research Journal, Vol. 10, Summer2013, No 332- Journal of Politics, Journal of Law and Political Science, Vol. 41, No. 1, Spring 2011,Pages 81 to 95.3- Why are countries in the region opposed to a referendum on independence inKurdistan? Umm Al Binley Pollab, a guest researcher at the Middle East StrategicStudies Center, September 2017.4- Reasons for the rise of ISIL and its impact on the Middle East security regime, Thesis,Ali Mehrabani, University of Tehran.5- Middle East Political Geography, Tehran: Ministry of Foreign Affairs.6- Middle East Two thousand years from the advent of Christianity to today, NeyPublishing.7- What is the Middle East? Mirta Seyyed Sajjadi, Parvin Zarrin Kalansari, August 28,2007 Etemad newspaper.8- www.Farsnews.com

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