It meaning, identities, and social relations, but also

It is easy to see linguistic commodification through in our diversity of
practices like marketing, performance art services, advertising, public signs
etc. According to these contexts, languages and identities are one of the main
sources to develop commodified linguistic and cultural products that must go
through the stereotyped processes of product development, branding, marketing,
distribution, and consumption. Therefore, symbolic capital improved thanks to
modern inventions of cultural practices, languages, and identities is mobilized
as marketable. In fact, Bourdieu (1977, 1982) indicated the many ways in which
language as a part of the symbolic capital that can be interchangeable in markets
with forms of material capital.

According to how one
speaks and writes, we can understand his/her academic background, socioeconomic
status, and from which region of the country the person is coming from. Gal
(1989) and Irvine (1989) also argued that the study of language has to be
studied not only within the limits of making meaning, identities, and social
relations, but also the political economic conditions that restrict the
facilities for making meaning and social relations.  This responsibility loaded into the language lead
to an increasingly central economic role for language as not only work process
but only work product. Theorists of the globalized new economy, such as Giddens
(1990), Harvey (1989), Appadurai (1996), and Castells (2000) have claimed that globalization
(or capitalist expansion) needs to require successful communication, literacy skills
through employees, multilingualism and development of niche markets. We can
tell by looking at all these interlocked criteria that language has become center
to the globalized new economy. Also, it is the center of the emergence of language
work, and therefore of the language worker. (Boutet 2001, 2008, Heller &
Boutet 2006, Duchene 2009) It should be noted that some areas have been
increased in importance thanks to language work, especially tourism. That is
the main reason why tourism is often mentioned as one of the fastest-growing
industries today. Besides, it is involved in the symbolic dimensions of added
value in the distribution of commodified linguistic resources. 

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