It or typographer to rely on what is

It would be a mistake for the designer or typographer to
rely on what is on screen when designing for print, especially when minute
adjustments and attention to detail are so important. Proofs should be printed
to ensure the final outcome is as intended, as the screen cannot promise to
display the correct colour, resolution, character shape, and spacing that is
intended by the designer (Gordon, 2001). 
Upon mentioning colour it is also important to discuss how it affects
legibility and readability when combined with type.


It is a common belief that the most legible colour
combination for typography is black type on a white background. Although this
theory may stand to be true, evolving printing and digital screen technologies
can now offer alternative combinations that can match, if not exceed
legibility. The legibility of
type can be drastically affected for the better or the worst when colour is
incorporated. Depending on the nature of content, the appropriate contrast
between the type itself and the background it sits on is paramount. (Maxa,


Hue is another name for colour, as is tone. Value represents
how dark or light a colour may be, and saturation refers to how bright a colour
is. Hue, value, and saturation are three properties all colours hold and should
be carefully considered by designers when combining type with a colour. (Albers,
2009) An example of this would be orange and blue. They are complimentary
colours that are both very saturated and have a high hue contrast. Because both
colours fight to grab the eyes attention when combined with type, vibrations
between the two can happen, causing the eye to strain. If legibility is to be
improved when using this colour combination, either the background or the type
itself should be lightened or darkened in hue. (Maxa, 2015) Analogous colours
are those that appear close together on the colour wheel. Although these
colours can be fully saturated, they can still work together as their values
can contrast each other. Take blue and green, blue has a much lower in value
than green, meaning little to no adjustment is needed.(Albers, 2009)


The typeface itself should be taken into consideration when
selecting a colour as each typefaces can have a number peculiarities and
quirks. Characteristics such a fine stroke width or ultra thin serifs can
greatly hinder legibility when paired with an unconsidered colour. In this
circumstance, legibility can be improved by creating a higher value contrast. (Maxa,
2015) The same principle applies to the types point size. A drastically
different value and hue contrast is required for type at much smaller sizes. (Albers,
2009) Typographical colour is an optical effect that is relevant in both
digital and in print. It refers to how light or dark text can appear from
certain attributes such as kearning, leading, line length anf typeface choice.

When type is set in a block of text it can often appear darker and more dense.

Extra line spacing should be considered to help create some breathing room and
reduce the value effect. (Maxa, 2015)




Even the worst designed typefaces can be drastically
improved in the hands of someone with a strong knowledge of line length, type
point size, and interline spacing. Harmonizing the bond between these variables
can dramatically improve its legibility. In order for a reader to relax into a
pleasing reading rhythm, it vital that line lengths are of an acceptable span.

When reading longer lines it can be increasingly difficult to locate the next
line, and shorter lines can result in the reader having to adjust their eye to
often. Both outcomes can help strain the readers eyes at an accelerated rate.

(Maxa, 2015) Since people commonly read from twelve to fourteen inches away,
research suggests that the optimal size type should be is between nine to
twelve points. (Maxa, 2015) When type is set too large or too small, reading
can become exceedingly demanding. Large type set over twelve points tends to be
broken down and read in sections instead of as a whole. Fixation pause can also
occur with larger type, which is when the readers eye stalls on a line of text.

Visibility is greatly reduced when type is set smaller than nine point,
effecting word recognition by abolishing internal patterns created by
counterforms. (Maxa, 2015)


The alphabet has been slowly evolving for centuries to
become what we know today. The need for communication has developed and molded
each individual shape of the twenty-six letters. “As the alphabet has evolved,
it has become

a flexible system of signs in which all letters are
distinct, yet all work

together harmoniously as visible language. ” (Maxa, 215)


We do not read letter by letter, but by words and groups,
this is because we follow two rules with the reading process. The first is the
patterns we find inside of words created by counterforms, and the second is the
characteristic shape of the word itself. Both of these create visual cues for
word recognition.