New Freedom ProgramThe Election of 1912Progressive PartyWilson wins the election of 1912Prog. Party diminishesL”Triple wall of privilege”Underwood Tariff BillRatification of 16th AmendmentNational Banking ActFederal Reserve ActFederal Reserve BoardFederal Trade Commission Act of 1914Clayton Antitrust of 1914Samuel GompersFederal Farm Loan ActWarehouse ActLa Folette Seamen’s ActWorking- men’s Compensa- tionAdamson ActCancel Panama Canal Tolls ActJones ActHaitiHuertaMexican RevolutionCarranzaOutbreak of WWICentral PowersAlliesNeutrality Proclama- tionKaiser WilhelmTrade disputesSinking of LusitaniaSussex PledgeWar becomes unavoidableWilson wins the election of 1916The “Bull Moose” Campaign of 1912The Election of 1912: The Democratic party selected Woodrow Wilson as their candidate?viewed Wilson as a reformist leader that would be able to beat Taft (Republican candidate)Democrats had a powerful progressive platform (antitrust laws, lower tariffs, banking reform), aka New Freedom programPreferred small enterprise, entrepreneurship, and the complimentary functioning of unregulated and monopolized marketsDid not promote social-welfare programs (Roosevelt supported it)Progressive Republican party?Theodore Roosevelt ran again, as a 3rd party candidateTR established the New Nationalism program, which promoted better regulations of trusts, women suffrage, and social welfare programsTR was shot during the campaign, but was able to recover in few weeksBoth Wilson and TR preferred a more engaged government duty in affairs, regarding economic and social, however they contradicted over particular approachesWoodrow Wilson: A Minority PresidentThe Democratic Party was confident that they would win, since the Republican Party was splitWoodrow Wilson won the election of 1912, beating Roosevelt and Taft (Republican votes split)Taft later becomes the chief justice of the Supreme CourtThe Progressive Party (TR’s) came to an end, due to the lack of any elected state or local officialsWilson: The Idealist in PoliticsPresident Wilson depended on genuine and moral appeal to draw the attention of the publicWilson was intelligent, but lacked people skillsWilson’s believe in moral righteousness and idealism made him to be very inflexible in negotiatingWilson Tackles the TariffPresident Wilson was resolute to take down “the triple wall of privilege”?tariffs, banks, trusts1913?Wilson ordered an exclusive meeting of the Congress to discuss the tariff situationHe persuaded the Congress to authorize the Underwood Tariff Bill, which greatly lowered the tariffThe 16th Amendment was ratified in 1913, as well?this allowed Congress to gather a graduated income taxWilson Battles the BankersThe most detrimental part of the National Banking Act, which was ordered during the Civil War, was the inflexibility of moneyIn times of economic struggle, banking reserves, which were situated in NY and other large cities, was not able to disburse money quickly into places in need 1913?Congress authorized the Federal Reserve Act, and the new Federal Reserve Board, selected by the President, regulated a nationwide system of 12 regional Federal Reserve banksEach reserve bank was the main bank for its regionThe Federal Reserve Board assured a large degree of public authorityThe Board was, also, allowed to issue paper money, called Federal Reserve Notes (the US Dollar)Because of this, the quantity of money in currency could be raised as needed for the necessities of businessThe President Tames the TrustsFederal Trade Commission Act of 1914?authorized by Congress in 1914This law made the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), which regulated industries involved in interstate commerce/tradeThis institution was able to issue cease-and-desist orders to companies engaged in immoral business approachesThe Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914?addition to the Sherman Act’s list of business rules that were regarded negativelyThis act functioned to protect the labor and agricultural organizations from antitrust prosecution, while legally allowing strikes and peaceful picketingSamuel Gompers, a union leader, promoted this actWilsonian Progressivism at High TideThe Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916?allowed low-interest rate loans to farmersThe Warehouse Act of 1916?permitted farmers to take out loans opposed to the value of their main crops, which were reserved in government warehousesThe La Folette Seamen’s Act of 1915?helped sailors, by demanding appropriate treatment and living pay on American shipsThe Workingmen’s Compensation Act of 1916?President Wilson helped the workers, by providing aid to federal civil-service employees during times of disabilityAdditionally in 1916, President Wilson accepted an act that prohibited child labor on products, going into the interstate trade/commerceThe Adamson Act of 1916?created an 8 hour work day for all laborers on trains in interstate commercePresident Wilson appointed Louis D. Brandeis to the Supreme CourtHe was a progressive reformer and the first Jew to become a Supreme Court justiceNew Directions in Foreign PolicyPresident Wilson believed in anti-imperialism and was against a forceful foreign policy1914?President Wilson convinced Congress to cancel the Panama Canal Tolls Act of 1912, which had excused American coastal shipping from fees1916?President Wilson signed the Jones Act, which gave the Philippines territorial status and guaranteed independence, once a strong government could be created1915?political chaos emerged in Haiti, and President Wilson quickly sent out marines to protect American lives and property1916?President Wilson signed a treaty with Haiti that supplied the US with management of finances and the police1917?President Wilson bought the Virgin Islands from DenmarkMoralistic Diplomacy in Mexico1913?a Mexican Revolution took place and the Mexican president was killed and General Victoriano Huerta replaced the former presidentHowever, Huerta was a cruel dictator, and due to this disorder in Mexico, millions of Spanish-speaking immigrants came to America and sought for a better lifePresident Wilson, first did not want the US to be involved with the war in Mexico, and he wanted the Mexican people to conquer their government themselvesBut, after a small group of American sailors was, by mistake, captured by the Mexicans, so President Wilson demanded the navy to capture the Mexican port of Veracruz; a Tampico IncidentCountries of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile became involved and forced Huerta to resignUltimately, Venustiano Carranza became the president of Mexico; Francisco Villa, the opponent to President Carranza, tried to start war between Mexico and the US, by murdering AmericansPresident Wilson demanded General John J. Perishing to disband Villa’s irrational groupThe invading American army was withdrawn from Mexico in 1917, due to the threat of war with Germany brewedThunder Across the Sea1914?World War I started when the successor to the throne of Austria-Hungary (Archduke Franz Ferdinand) was murdered by a Serb patriotThe Vienna government was shocked, supported by Germany, and opposed and presented a list of demands to SerbiaSerbia, supported by Russia, did not want to follow these demandRussia gathered up its army, making Germany to do it, as wellFrance, at first, agreed to stay neutral, however Germany was surrounded on both sides by possible enemies, so it agreed to take down France, first, so that they would concentrate on attacking RussiaCentral Powers?Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, BulgariaAllies?France, Britain, Russia, Japan, Italy, (and eventually) the USA Precarious NeutralityPresident Wilson ordered the neutrality proclamation at the start of World War IMajority of the Americans opposed the Germans from the beginning of the warMany people of the US saw Kaiser Wilhelm II (the leader of Germany), as a cocky authoritative figureMost Americans did not want to be involved in the warAmerica Earns Blood MoneyThe American Industry grew off of trade/commerce with the Allies, although the Central Powers opposed American trade with the Allies, but the US did not want to break any international neutrality lawsThe US and Germany were allowed to trade, but Britain prohibited this commerce by regulating the Atlantic Ocean 1915?few months after Germany began to utilize submarines in war (U-boats), a German submarine sunk the British ship, Lusitania, which killed 128 AmericansThe American people were angry about this and demanded war, but President Wilson was solid that the US was not going to be involved in World War IAfter Germany sunk a couple more foreign ships, they agreed to the Sussex pledge, which stated that Germany would not sink an unarmed ship without a warningA German warning to this pledge was that the US must convince the Allies to terminate their trade blockade, but this was not likely, therefore, war with Germany became unavoidableWilson Wins the Reelection in 1916The Progressive Party and the Republican Party gathered in 1916 to select their presidential candidatesTR was appointed by the Progressives, but TR declined his nomination, because he did not want to divide the party, againThe Republican Party selected Charles Evans Hughes (Supreme Court justice)The Republicans opposed of the Democrats’ believes in tariff, attack on trusts, and how Wilson took action upon Mexico and GermanyThe Democratic Party selected Wilson and ran an anti-war campaignWoodrow Wilson became president, again, winning the election of 1916Summary: In this chapter, Woodrow Wilson wins the election of 1912, and begins his own “progressive” movements in America, concerning anti-imperialism, lower tariffs, and attacking trusts, or immoral business and companies. He orders new laws and acts that reflects his beliefs and priorities as president. He tries to stay neutral and avoid being involved in war, which is seen through his actions, concerning the war in Mexico and World War I. During the chaotic time during the war in Mexico, Wilson does not want to interfere with Mexico’s civil disputes and wants the Mexican citizens to overthrow the government. Wilson only gets involved, if the problem is directly affecting the America and our people. Also, regarding World War One, Wilson and the American people opposes war and stays neutral. However, as tension rises, and Germany sinks the Lusitania, killing 128 Americans, the people of the US were furious and wanted to go on war against Germany. Wilson is elected as president, again, after the election of 1916.