One legal laws. The branch mainly focuses on

One of the
application in the field of science has brought tremendous contribution to
criminal and civil laws. Forensic science has been governed for all the legal
standards for criminal investigation admissible evidence in the world.

This is one of
the important subject that helps in crime scene investigation. The forensic
scientists uses genetic principles and technologies for their indispensable
work in investigation. Certain methodologies carried out by these scientists
can be by collecting evidences like fingerprints, dna, drugs and link these
evidences to help resolve the crime scenes. This includes
the implementation of genetic testing on civil and legal laws. The branch
mainly focuses on the genetic material in humans which is dna (deoxiribo
nucleic acid). This uses medical knowledge in civil law.

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Molecular
biology can be an ideal way to improvise developments in
forensics. This was evident during 1960s and 1970s. Forensic haemogenetics was
the first step to forensic sciences. This was been introduced by Karl
Landsteiner during 1600 by taking ABO blood grouping techniques. Under the
molecular biology branch it mainly contains,

 

1.    
Restriction
enzymes

 

2.    
Sanger
sequencing

 

3.    
Southern
blotting

 

All these
processes can be used to sequence the dna. These leads to the formation of dna
polymorphisms. During the time of 1984 scientist Alec jeffreys studied (VNTR)
variable number tandem repeat this technique can be followed by the extraction
of dna and the cutting of it by the molecular scissors called restriction
enzymes. These fragments can be undergone quantification by agarose
electrophoresis later the polymorphic loci can be identified and observed using
probe hybridisation and southern blotting. These steps involved in the
generation of the DNA profile this can be orderly organised to be as like,

 

1.    
Crime
scene

2.    
The
observed materials are been identified and collected

3.    
Then
later these materials are characterised

4.    
The
process of DNA extraction is done

5.    
Quantity
check of the extracted DNA is done

6.    
The
quality and quantity checked DNA is PCR amplified

7.    
The
obtained PCR products has been detected

8.    
The
profile is later analysed and interpreted

9.    
Statistical
evaluation of DNA profile

10.The final report of thus done process is
being created.

 

We may be able
to observe the end result as the bands. These bands can be of black coloured
which is clearly made to observe in x ray film. This technique called VNTR (variable
number tandem repeat).

           

                During the early times of forensics the
method of VNTR has always been a strong and powerful tool used for DNA
analysis. But it has faced a lot limitations which are,

 

1.    
This
process required a large amount of DNA.

2.    
Equipments
were expensive.

3.    
The
process is not possible or won’t work with degraded DNA.

4.    
  There may be some difficulties in comparison
between the laboratories.

 

 

Evolutionary analysis of
genetic data in forensic genetics:

 

Most of the
diverse organisms which are used and studied in forensic studies are organisms
belonging to pathogens. These are always present in the form of large
populations. They can be mostly present because of its short generation times.
The analysis of the samples used under the means of analysis of evolution can be
the ones present in distant generations. This method of analysis can be very
advantageous that most of the time it can be used for the identification of the
genetic relationships between each species and even the common connections and
ancestors can be found predominantly. Hence evolutionary analysis can be very
useful from the aspect of forensic sciences as it helps in these knowledge,

in

1.    
The
reason for the outbreak or the cause of the transmission

2.    
Number
of individuals which are affected

3.    
Date
and time of the transmission can be known

4.    
Even
the individual which is responsible for the transmission or outbreak can also
be found

 

Now as the perspective and the maintenance of the
forensic sciences and studies has been increased worldwide, it has become more
developed and started using much more significant protocols. So, when this is
being used by the authorities provide much more information. The depth of the
knowledge provided will drastically increases that the identity of the found
sample from the site of crime scene can be viewed in a higher biological levels
like,

 

1.    
Population

2.    
Species

3.    
Breed

4.    
And
even higher taxonomic levels.

 

Taking the
abstract of the genetic methodologies used in the field of forensic sciences.
We consider a DNA probe pMC118 which is used to detine the genetic locus D1S58.
This locus with various amounts of VNTR OR variable number of tandem repeats is
the one which is run under polymerase chain reaction to be amplified with small
fragments of genomic DNA. The human blood which is amplified to obtain genomic
DNA consists of MCT118 locus and after the amplification the pcr bands which
are polymorphic are successfully observed with the stain ethidium bromide on
the poly acrylamide gels.

 

The ethical, legal and social involvement in forensic
studies:

It is true that
the data collected can be a help for the scientists to know about the origins
of the human individuals and could find the suspect of illness and diseases.
But it is equally important to consider the ethical and social values too, that
it sometimes can be destructive in the genetic research history. There must be
well experienced and professional scientists who can identify and claim the
full range of the possible execution of the thesis at the early stages itself.
most of the times the implementations of research can be based on the need of
data and technology wise, we can make sure that we do it based on social needs
and decreasing the use of science in unintended ways. The ethical laws
regarding the forensic genetics are being taken care by the US National human
genome research institute (NHGRI) and they have proposed ethical laws and
projects leading to it. The latest project leading to this is the human genome
project. There must be a combined and associated endeavour from all the
scientists so that we could easily reshape the world of science to use it more
responsibly. These ethical and social laws should be always taken care of while
working with science and its branches.

 

Conclusion:  

 

Now we know
that the main use of forensic sciences and its studies are in context of the
investigation and the law enforcement. The techniques of forensic sciences are
being used by the army to analyse explosives and weapons. Forensic branch of
genetics has always lead higher and it provide its varied importance in the
present and even the future world.

 

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