Path important even when the work is insignificant.

Path Goal theory is defined as how
leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals. It explains how
leaders can help subordinates along the path to their goals by selecting
specific behaviours that are best suited to subordinates’ needs. By choosing
the appropriate style, leaders increase subordinates’ expectation for success
and satisfaction. The four Path Goal types of leader behaviours are Directive,
Supportive, Participative and Achievement (Northouse, 2016). 1.     
The behaviour
characteristic Daniel exhibited at the duplicating services is Supportive. Daniel promotes a friendly
work atmosphere such as allowing casual attire and the freedom to choose
background music; he also spends a lot of time talking to each employee, and
welcomes staff talking with each other. Daniel makes each worker feel important
even when the work is insignificant. He promotes camaraderie among his staff,
and is not afraid to become involved in their activities. The
second behaviour is Achievement. Staff
at the desktop publishing area is quite independent, self-assured, and
self-motivated. In supervising them, Daniel gives them a lot of space, is
available when they need help, but otherwise leaves them alone as a way of
expressing confidence in their capabilities to meet his expectations. 

2.      Daniel
understood the characteristics of the subordinates and the values of the tasks.
He adopts different leadership style for different departments. Daniel’s
leadership is effective as profits for the store continue to grow, and he
manages to motivate effectively and create productivity in the Copy Center.
The Hill’s model for
team leadership provides an overview of the different aspects involved in team
leadership to support leaders with decision-making and problem-solving tasks. It
was designed to provide a cognitive road map for identifying team needs, and
offer suggestions about how to take appropriate actions to improve the team’s
functions and effectiveness. There are four sections to this model: 1)
Leadership Decisions, 2) Internal Leadership Actions (Task & Relational),
3) External Leadership Actions (Environmental), and 4) Team Effectiveness (Northouse, 2007).

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First issue: the
ostracised team member situation is identified as an Internal Leadership Action
and a Relational issue. Coaching the team member on his interpersonal
skills and encouraging team collaboration will help the team member adapt
to the organisation culture.

Second issue: An
Internal Leadership Action and a Task issue, the leader may clarify goals
with the team to obtain agreement and consensus on goals setting. Another solution is to facilitate
decision-making by informing, controlling, coordinating, mediating,
synthesising and focusing on the issue.

Third issue: Unable
to get recognition and support from the top management team is an External Leadership
Action. The leader may negotiate support with upper management to
provide recognition to boost the team’s motivation levels. Another solution is
to advocate the team’s success by initiating a newsletter that
chronicles the team’s efforts.

Leaders can use this
model to help make decisions about the current state of their teams and realise
what actions to take to improve the team’s functions in order to achieve
effectiveness.Leadership
in the 21st century is different and over changing because of megatrends
and evolution in business. There are six differences in leadership towards the
21st century: Society values, Technological revolution,
Globalisation, Continuous innovation, Knowledge workers, and wellness movement (Hitt &
Haynes, 2010).Companies
need to look into the wellness aspects and make firms a great place to “live,
work and play”. Focusing on well-being at work benefits the organisation by
helping employees feel competent, happy, and satisfied in their role. Employees
who have good well-being at work are likely to be more motivated, more loyal, and
more productive. Taking care
of employees’ well-being makes economic sense as healthier staffs reduce
absenteeism, increase focus, and lower stress levels.To take advantage of the Wellness movement trend, the
organisational leader can develop a strategic
vision, by focusing on the vision and communicating new values and
commitments. “Make wellness your own” is the tagline of Starbucks’ wellness programme. The coffee
chain provides information, tools, and a culture to reinforce health and
wellness. Wellness, Starbucks claims, is larger than benefits.

Starbucks builds core
competencies by constantly identifying new plans and global market
opportunities and builds an effective organisational culture to support the
changes and size of the business. Starbucks insures all their employees with comprehensive
health coverage, life insurance, disability insurance, commuter benefits, adoption
assistance, Health and Dependent care reimbursement accounts, employee
assistance programmes, and financial assistance programmes. Attractive incentives
are available such as company stocks, education benefits, tuition reimbursement
and paid vacation.
Laissez-faire leadership, also known as
delegative leadership, is a type of leadership style in which leaders are
hands-off and allow group members to make decisions. This leadership style usually
leads to the lowest productivity (Bass, 1990).A Laissez-faire leader trusts that the
team member can work towards solutions. By giving constructive feedback, the
leader gives a hands-off approach to change his behaviour during meetings and decide
what is the right and wrong ways of doing things. However, this free-rein style
may make the leader appear as uninvolved or unengaged.Transformational leadership
is a process of engaging with others to create a connection that increases motivation and morality in both
leaders and followers. There are four ‘I’ factors involved in Transformational
leadership – Idealised influence, Inspirational motivation, Intellectual
stimulation and Individual considerations (Burns, 1978).Idealised influence can be most expressed through a transformational
leader’s willingness to follow a core set of values, convictions and ethical
principles. Acting as a strong role model and displaying a charismatic
personality will influence others to follow the leader’s vision. It is through
this concept of idealised influence that the leader builds trust with the team
member.

Another ‘I’
factor is Individualised consideration;
the transformational leader listens carefully to the team member’s needs and provides
genuine concern. Through coaching and mentoring, training opportunities can be
provided for this team member to grow and become fulfilled in his position,
thus changing his behaviour and inducing his will to change his work attitude
and be a responsible team member. 
Diversity
is a range of different things that confronts leadership today. This includes
race, language, religion, age, sexual orientation, and gender. One of the key
differences in leadership is in the role of woman and today’s gender equality (Chin & Trimble, 2014).Referring to the Leadership
Labyrinth, one of the barriers Susan will likely face is Human Capital differences. Women are usually provided with less
opportunity for education, job training and certifications than man because of responsibility
women assume for child rearing and domestic duties. Women also usually have to
tackle issues of family, marriage, leave taking care of children, and
re-entering the workforce after child birth.Another barrier is Prejudice. It explains the less
favourable attitudes towards female than male leaders, greater difficulty for
women to attain top leadership roles, and greater difficulty for women to be
viewed as effective (Eagly &
Carli, 2007).

The Advancement of Women
task force can try to change the organisation culture and develop policy change
and create management diversity to help women like Susan. The task force should increase awareness
of the psychological drivers of prejudice toward female leaders, and work to
dispel those perceptions. In addition, establishing family-friendly human
resources practices including introducing flexible working hours, job sharing,
telecommuting, elder care provisions, dependent childcare options are some ways
to provide support and allow women to stay in their jobs during the early and most
demanding years of childcare, build social capital, keep up-to-date in their
fields, and compete for higher positions.

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