Rating are identified at extremes of the scale

Rating ScaleA rating scale is a set of categories designed to elicit information about a quantitative or a qualitative attribute.Its precisely defined format focuses the conversation between the respondent and the questionnaire on the relevant areas. All respondents are invited to communicate in the shared language of the specified option choices (Low 1988).1. Category scale:Sequence of numbers or words which only serve to identify certain entities or observations and have no quantitative significance.The category scale uses multiple items to elicit a single response as per the example. This also uses the nominal scale. Example: where in northern California do you reside?? North Bay? south Bay? East Bay? Peninsula? Other2. Likert scale: The Likert scale is designed to examine how strongly your subjects agree or disagree with statement on a 5-point scale with the following anchors: ? Strongly disagree ? Disagree ? Neither Agree or Nor Disagree ? Agree ? Strongly AgreeThis is also an interval scale and differences in the response between any two points on the scale remain the same.3. Semantic Differential Scale:Several bipolar attributes are identified at extremes of the scale and respondents are asked to indicate their attitude, on what may be called a semantic scale. This is treated as interval scale. Example: Responsive – Unresponsive, Beautiful – Ugly. 4. Numerical scale:The numerical is similar to the semantic scale, with the difference that numbers on a 5-point or 7-points scale are provided. This is also an interval scale. Example: How please are you with your new real estate agent? Options will be available from extremely pleased to extremely displease.5. Itemized rating scale:A 5-point or 7-point scale with anchors, as needed, is provided for each item and the respondent states the appropriates number on the side of each item, as per the examples that follow. The response to the items are then summated. This is an interval scale. Example: ? Very unlikely? Unlikely? Neither likely or Nor unlikely? Likely ? Very likely6. Fixed or constant sum scale:The respondent are here asked to distribute a given no. of points across various items as per the example below. This is more in the nature of Ordinal scale. For Example: in choosing a toilet soap, indicate the importance you attach to each of the aspects by allotting points for each to total 100 in all. 7. Stapel scale:This scale simultaneously measures both direction and intensity of the attitude toward the items under study. The characteristic of interest to the study is placed at the center and a numerical scale, say, from +3 to -3, on either side of the item. Since this does not has an absolute zero point, this an interval scale.8. Graphic Rating Scale:A graphical representation helps the respondent to indicate on this scale their answers to a particular question by placing a mark at the appropriate point on the line as in the following example. This is an ordinal scale, though the following example might appear to make it look like an interval scale Example;On a scale of 1 to 10 how would you rate your supervisor? ? Excellent? All right? Very bad 9. Consensus scale: These are also developed by consensus, where a panel of judges select certain items, which in its view measure the relevant concept.Ranking ScaleA hierarchical ordering of grammatical units such that a unit of a given rank normally consists of units of the next lower rank, as, in English, the ordering sentence, clause, group or phrase, word.1. Forced-choice:Odd-interval scale focusing on an attitude toward a specific attribute How do you like the taste of Classic Coke?? Strongly Like It? Like it? Neither Like Nor Dislike It? Dislike It? Strongly Dislike it? Very Much Dislike ItEven-interval scale focusing on an overall attitudeOverall, how would you rate Ultra Brite Toothpaste?? Extremely Good? Very Good? Somewhat Good? Somewhat Bad? Very Bad? Extremely Bad2. Comparative Scale:A comparative scale is an ordinal or rank order scale that can also be referred to as a non metric scale.  Respondents evaluate two or more objects at one time and objects are directly compared with one another as part of the measuring process.  For example you could ask someone if they prefer listening to MP3s through a Zune or an iPod. You could take it a step further and add some other MP3 player brands to the comparison.  MP3 players would be scaled relative to each other and the scale position of any one player would depend on the the scale position of the remaining players.3. Paired comparison scale:In this scale respondent is asked to pick one of two objects from a set based upon a given criterion. Example: Which brand do you prefer?? Coca-Cola, Pepsi? Dr. Pepper, Pepsi? Coca-Cola, Seven-Up? Dr. Pepper, Seven-Up

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