RIT Computer Science Capstone Report 21711 | P a g eDestructible Buildings for Disaster Simulations in Virtual RealityAishwary PramanikDepartment of Computer ScienceGolisano College of Computing and Information SciencesRochester Institute of TechnologyRochester, NY [email protected]— In recent years, Virtual Reality has been used for simulation and visualization of the effects of natural disasters such as earthquakes and violent storms. This project is a step towards the creation of such a pedagogical system which will focus on the creation and animation of destructible 3D architectural models which can be destroyed in the virtual world based on natural disaster data. The goal of this project is to develop a method and the process for the automated/semi-automated creation of structures designed for animated destruction to provide an idea of the effects of such disasters. Though it is not expected that physically accurate simulation necessarily be achieved, the animation effects should convey the severity of the disasters on representative structures.I. INTRODUCTIONA. Getting prepared for a disasterA disaster is a sudden event, such as an accident or a natural catastrophe, that causes great damage or loss of life 6, which we are facing globally nowadays. It can happen anytime anywhere – at home or at work. The solution to these situations is quite complex but it is important to be prepared. As such, there isn’t any generalized solution available for the preparedness and therefore, it becomes critical to categorize the disasters based on the location, recent history and the magnitude. Following this approach, we can predict when, which and of what magnitude disaster is going to happen at a place. To maximize the survival chances during the disaster, the building architecture and the material used, can play a vital role. For instance, using reinforced concrete material instead of timber would definitely be beneficial.B. Introducing Virtual RealityVirtual Reality is a technology which provides an immersive experience for user to interact with a virtual world. This environment enables user to be present in an imaginary world and perform actions with the help of simulated images, sounds and sensations. In order to experience such virtual world, the user requires a head mounted virtual device such as Google Cardboard, HTC Vive, Oculus Rift, Samsung Gear VR etc. These devices vary depending on the controlling ability, intensity and the quality of experience.C. Role of Virtual RealityIt has been observed that Virtual Reality can be a big player when it comes to disaster preparedness. The least thing that can be achieved, is simulating a disaster in a virtual world to be able to provide an artificial situation and then analyzing the user behavior. Based on the observed behavior, better methods for evacuation techniques can be developed with the help of some dummy drills.II. BACKGROUNDA. Applications of Virtual RealityAlthough being an emerging technology, Virtual Reality has earned a lot of respect and fame in the fields of Military, Healthcare, Entertainment, Fashion, Education, Research, Engineering, Heritage, Media etc. Looking its speed of growth, researchers have predicted its longer run in the future. run to go. The ease of integration of this tech with any kind of current technology in order to achieve more appropriate results, is quite appreciable. The real-world integration of Machine Learning with Virtual Reality to perform prediction and simulation altogether creates a new domain to be researched about.B. Common misconceptions about Virtual RealityAs discussed earlier, apart from Entertainment, Virtual Reality can also be used for multiple different domains. But, there is still a misconception about it being used only for playing games and experiencing the imaginary world. The applications such as project robot control by NASA using which, the scientists will be able to search for life on other planets by controlling the robots. In the fields of Education, Virtual Reality is helping students to visualize their coursework in a better way for better understanding.C. Subway evacuation analysis approach4Students from Bowie State University, Maryland, have presented a novel Virtual Reality based training and evacuation drills system for analyzing the user response at subway stations during a disaster.D. Avatar design and monitoring approachThis is a scenario based analysis approach to improve preparedness plans across infrastructures, technologies, policies, and resources.Identify applicable sponsor/s here. If no sponsors, delete this text box (sponsors).RIT Computer Science Capstone Report 21712 | P a g eIII. SYSTEM DESIGNFig. 1. Overall system design architecture to simulate earthquakeFig. 2. System configuration flow for user inputIV. IMPLEMENTATIONA. DetailsThe implementation phase started with development of different types buildings with different materials such as Timber, Stone, Brick and Reinforced concrete, in Blender. For simplicity, some of the building/materials have been taken from unity inbuilt assets. After completion of building design and material, each object has been imported as “. fbx”, to be used in Unity.The second stage included designing the interiors, which uses the similar technique as mentioned above with some detailing. These objects are then imported in Unity and a scene is created. After positioning each object, the rigid body and mesh/box colliders are added to them accordingly. The building objects are then converted to small mesh triangles with the help of Delaunay Triangulation. Eventually, the mesh collision is added to each mesh.In order to simulate the disaster, write a script to oscillate the base in such a way that each mesh object collide with each other in accordance with magnitude of earthquake provided. To show the effects and observe the real feel in virtual reality, add particle systems which generate earthquake effect. Some of the examples can be duststorm, bloodsprayFX (not necessary) etc.B. Technical Details1) Platform Supporta) Windowsb) Macc) Android2) Hardware Usagea) Intel Core i7-7700HQb) GeForce GTX 1070c) Alienware Gaming Laptopd) 16GB DDR4 RAMe) Oculus Rift & Touch3) Sofware Usagea) Unityb) Blenderc) Visual Studio for C#RIT Computer Science Capstone Report 21713 | P a g eC. For Developers- Open the directory containing the project.- Select Modern Home scene.- Navigate to the Hierarchy panel.- Have a look of each object, how and why it has been used.- Analyze the purpose of each object and its properties.- Customize the application based on new development requirements.- After completion of the changes, deploy the build for multiple platforms.D. For Users- Open the builds directory.- Choose the application file according the platform it is running on (For e.g. “.exe” for window, “.apk” for android)- Choose the best possible configuration according to the machine it is running on.- Run the application.- Wear your Gear VR device.- Select the type of building material and click on proceed.- Select the magnitude of the earthquake and click on simulate.- Experience the simulation.- Complete the survey for future use.V. RESULTSA. Screenshot from the implementationFig. 3. Input screen to get type of building material from the user.Fig. 4. Input screen to get magnitude of earthquake from the user.Fig. 5. Block building for algorithmic implementation before earthquake simulation.RIT Computer Science Capstone Report 21714 | P a g eFig. 6. Block building for algorithmic implementation after earthquake simulation.Fig. 7. Interior of the building before simulation.Fig. 8. Interior stair during simulation.Fig. 9. Second floor during simulation.Fig. 10. Master bedroom during simulation.RIT Computer Science Capstone Report 21715 | P a g eFig. 11. Kitchen during simulation.Fig. 12. Living room during simulation.B. Video links of the simulation1) Basic algorithm simulationhttps://youtu.be/ihrYc21feSk2) Real world simulationhttps://youtu.be/ihrYc21feSkC. Analytical results based on the simulation demoThese results are based on the survey taken at the Frameless Labs VR Symposium – 2017, after the demo.TABLE I. USER RATINGS BASED ON THE AVERAGE TIME SPENT ON A SCENE OF THE GAMEPLAYSceneAverage Time Spent(Sec)Average Rating(Scale: 1-10)Scene 10:01:245.03Scene 20:01:185.09Scene 30:01:245.28Scene 40:01:264.40Scene 50:01:294.91Fig. 13. User ratings for survival chances of a particular building materialFig. 14. Analysis of user engagement based on the ratings for the application on the scale of 1-10, based on the amount of time spent (in seconds) on a Scene of the GameplayVI. FUTURE WORK• To build a similar Virtual Reality system in order to incorporate other type of disasters such as Tsunami, Hurricane, Flood etc.• Virtual Reality simulation with the help of location based disaster and magnitude prediction.31%22%43%4%StoneStoneStoneStoneStoneBrick BrickBrickReinforcedReinforcedReinforcedReinforcedReinforced Reinforced ReinforcedConcrete ConcreteConcreteConcrete ConcreteTimberTimberTimber TimberTimber188.8.131.52.855.25.40:01:220:01:190:01:250:01:250:01:2912345USER RATINGs (Scale: USER RATINGs (Scale: USER RATINGs (Scale: USER RATINGs (Scale: USER RATINGs (Scale: USER RATINGs (Scale: USER RATINGs (Scale: USER RATINGs (Scale: USER RATINGs (Scale: USER RATINGs (Scale: USER RATINGs (Scale: 1-10)Amount of time spent per scene (in sec) Amount of time spent per scene (in sec)Amount of time spent per scene (in sec)Amount of time spent per scene (in sec)Amount of time spent per scene (in sec) Amount of time spent per scene (in sec)Amount of time spent per scene (in sec)Amount of time spent per scene (in sec) Amount of time spent per scene (in sec) Amount of time spent per scene (in sec)Amount of time spent per scene (in sec)Amount of time spent per scene (in sec)Amount of time spent per scene (in sec)Amount of time spent per scene (in sec)Amount of time spent per scene (in sec)Amount of time spent per scene (in sec) Amount of time spent per scene (in sec)Amount of time spent per scene (in sec)Amount of time spent per scene (in sec) Amount of time spent per scene (in sec)Amount of time spent per scene (in sec) Amount of time spent per scene (in sec)Amount of time spent per scene (in sec)Amount of time spent per scene (in sec)Amount of time spent per scene (in sec) Amount of time spent per scene (in sec)Amount of time spent per scene (in sec)Amount of time spent per scene (in sec)RIT Computer Science Capstone Report 21716 | P a g e• Triangulate Real-Time rendered models and use them for the simulation.REFERENCES1 Alcínia Z. Sampaio, Joana P. Santos, Ana R. Gomes, Daniel P. Rosário and Augusto M. Gomes, “Collaborative Maintenance and Construction of Buildings Supported on Virtual Reality Technology”.2 Jae-Young Lee, Jong-Soo Choi, Oh-Seong Kwon and Chan-Sik Park, “A Study on Construction Defect Management Using Augmented Reality Technology”.3 XU Feng, CHEN Xuping, REN Aizhu and LU Xinzheng, “Earthquake Disaster Simulation for an Urban Area, with GIS, CAD, FEA, and VR Integration”.4 Sharad Sharma, Shanmukha Jerripothula, Stephon Mackey and Oumar Soumare, “Immersive Virtual Reality Environment of a Subway Evacuation on a Cloud for Disaster Preparedness and Response Training”.5 Trystyn K. Del Rosario, Molly E. Kampmann, Joseph T. McGrath, Elizabeth B. Connelly, José Orlando Gomes and James H. Lambert “Avatar Design and Monitoring in a Virtual Disaster for All-Hazards Preparedness and Infrastructure Management in Brazil”.6 Wikipedia, “Virtual Reality”, “Applications of Virtual Reality”, “Disaster”, “Delaunay triangulation”.7 LiveScience.com, “53392-virtual-reality-tech-uses-beyond-gaming”.8 Unity Assets.