College of Engineering, Pune
College of Engineering, Pune
College of Engineering, Pune
Prof. Yogesh P. Murumkar
Zeal College of Engineering,
Farming is the widest financial area and
theatres vital part in the general financial growth of a country. Business progressions in the field of farming
to upsurge the capability of specific
agricultural events. In this paper, we have proposed a new procedure
smart agriculture via connecting a smart detecting scheme
through wireless communication technology.
The respective scheme emphases on the size of bodily constraints
soil moisture content, automated irrigation, intrusion
detection, real time data processing that plays a dynamic role in
agricultural events. Grounded on
the important bodily and biochemical constraints of the soil measured, the
essential amount of water is
sprinkled on the harvests with a smart irrigator, which is connected to a Raspberry Pi kit. The complete demonstration and control policies of a smart irrigator and
smart agricultural system
established in this paper.
Raspberry Pi, Smart farming, Smart agriculture System,
Smart Identifying Scheme.
Farming is the
support of Indian economy. In India, about 70%
the people make their living from farming. The new
improvement in information
made it possible for the agriculturalists to obtain a massive quantity of site-specific information for the farms. The key actions involved are information gathering, processing,
and flexible amount of application of inputs. We can decrease a lot
of physical efforts in the
field of farming by means
The main issue faced in numerous farming areas is that absence of
automation in farming
activities. In India
farming activities are conducted
by physical labor, using
suitable gears such as
plough, sickle. Our
advanced automated agriculture system educethe physical
effort and automates the
farming events or activities by using various sensors
such as soil moisture, humidity, temperature as well as IR sensor as well as
real time data can be processed to make suggestions for farmers which will help
in increasing the productivity.
A. Raspberry Pi
Raspberry Pi 7 is a small computer board
working on the Linux operating system which connects to a computer monitor,
keyboard, and mouse. Raspberry Pi can be applied to a electronic structure and
programming network work, it can also served as a personal computer and Apache
Webserver, MySQL could be installed in the board.
A GPIO 10 pin can be
used as either a digital input or a digital output, and both operate at 3.3V.
Unlike the Arduino, the Raspberry Pi which does not have any analog inputs. For
that you must use an external analog-to-digital converter (ADC) or connect the
Pi to an interface board must be used. 2
Arduino is an open-source microcontroller
compatible with developed platforms. The controller appears not to be expensive
and uses low electrical power, 5.5 volts. C and C++ were employed for this
development. Arduino can connect to a computer via the Universal Serial Bus
(USB) and perform with compatible connected accessories in both analog signal
and digital signal.
Arduino is a microcontroller platform, mounted on a board that plugs easily
into most computers. It allows the user to program the onboard Atmega chip to
do various things with programming language, in programs called sketches. 2
C. Humidity Sensor module
Environmental conditions directly affect
animal livelihood contributing to some chronic epidemics such as Bird Flu and
Hand Foot and Mouth Disease. Therefore, DHT22 is use as a censor for measuring
temperature (for both Fahrenheit and Celsius value) and humidity. The measurement unit will be demonstrated
in a digital signal form.
programming is applied for the development of Raspberry Pi. Python would read
the Arduino signal value via UART and then collect the obtained signal to the
database for processing. If the value surpassed threshold, the over signal
would be sent to GPIO pins to aware the analog signal. In case of high quality
data, a “High” signal would be sent to GPIO pin 17 and the ventilator would
erase the internal air (Fan out on). In case of high temperature, a “High”
signal would be sent to GPIO pin 27 and the ventilator would work automatically
(Fan in on). In the event of luminescence change, the data would be sent to
GPIO pin 22 and electric lamps would be opened. Conveniently, working of
accessories could be customized by the user as mentioned in Fig. 4 expressing the
flowchart of the Python programming in Raspberry Pi.
Another important thing
is that this Smart Phone works with the Android OS. Developed applications are
on the Android operating system using the Java language and interacted with the
Raspberry Pi through the wireless network. This will take the value from the
Arduino to read displays such as temperature, humidity, light, toxic gases,
etc. It’s able to control fans and lights, and can be tracked via the internet
at any time. 2
Raspberry Pi and Arduino were connected via UART. The connection was a serial
communication as Full Duplex since there was two-ways that data could be
transmitted via pin TX and RX.
direct connection between the Raspberry Pi and Arduino was prohibited, because
of its electrical potential differences, which is 3.3 volts for the Raspberry
Pi and 5 volts for the Arduino. Bi-directional Logic Level Converter should be
used to separate them. 2
system can notify using a real-time alarming system to smart phones reporting
such as the current and daily highest/lowest temperature, humidity, and weather
quality of the farm surroundings. Users can also control the filter fan
switches and customize the notification system to the smart phone. 2
3. System Design
In this work, cheap soil moisture sensors,
temperature and humidity sensors, are used. They uninterruptedly track and
monitor the farm and send it to the cloud server for real time data processing.
The sensor information is stored in database. The web application is developed
in a particular way to analyse the information received and get the threshold
values of temperature, humidity and moisture. The server does the decision
making to automate the irrigation. The motor is automatically switched ON if
the soil moisture sensor’s value is less than the threshold value and the motor
will be switched OFF if the value tops the threshold. Likewise, his technique can
be used in green houses where in addition light intensity control can also be
controlled and automated.
system is developed and tested and various conditions. The soil moisture is
tested in all climatic conditions and results are interpreted successfully. The
LDR is tested in all light conditions. Different readings were taken under
different condition. The temperature reading was taken at different weather
conditions. The wireless transmission was achieved using Zigbee 1
In sensor data collection and irrigation control was put forward on vegetable crop
using smartphone and wireless sensor networks for smart farming. The environmental data
be collected and
irrigation system can be
controlled using smartphone.1
A novel cloud-computing-based smart farming system was proposed for early detection of
borer insects in tomatoes.
This problem is solved using Cloud computing and IOT. In a real-time monitoring
GPS-tracking was suggested for multifunctional vehicle path control and data acquisition based onZig-Bee multi-hop
It summarizes portion that isrelated to path planning for a multifunctional vehicle. The vehicle-tracking system uses the global positioning system (GPS) and Zig- Bee wireless network based on to make
architecture of the system is shown in below figure
Fig. 1. Raspberry Pi architecture
A. Sensors Data acquisition
The sensors which are to
be used are previously deliberated. Let’s know about information acquisition
from sensors. The sensor is interfaced with Raspberry Pi microcontroller and
programmed. After it is programmed we have to place it inside a box and it
should be kept in the field. The two probes of soil moisture sensor are
inserted in the soil. The current is passed by the probes in the soil. When
there is less resistance the sensor passes more current and when there is more
resistance, it passes less current. The exact moisture of the soil is detected
by resistance value. Fig. 2. Shows soil moisture sensor. 1
Light sensor (LDR)
intensity of the environment is detected by light sensor. Light is the main
source for crops which is accountable for photosynthesis. The voltage divider
circuit is designed to measure resistance due to light intensity variations.
Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) is used in which the resistivity decreases with
increase in light intensity and vice versa. The voltage level increases with
increase in light intensity. The analog reading is taken from the board. It can
be used in green houses where artificial lighting is done using any of the
incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps instead of sunlight.1
PIR (Passive infrared sensor)
PIR stands for Passive InfraRed. This motion sensor is made
up of fresnel lens, an infrared detector, and supporting detection circuitry.
The lens on the sensor emphases any infrared radiation existing around it to
the infrared detector. Living forms produce infrared heat, and as a result,
this heat is detected by the motion sensor. The sensor produces a 5V signal for
a period of one minute as soon as it senses the occurrence of a person. It
offers a tentative range of detection of about 6-7 meters and is highly
sensitive. When the PIR motion sensor senses a person, it produces a 5V
signal to the Raspberry Pi through its GPIO and we define what the Raspberry Pi should
do as it senses an intruder through the python coding.
B. Transmission of Data (Wireless)
The data acquired from sensors are transmitted to the
web server using wireless transmission. NRF24L01 module is used for wireless
transmission between the field and the web server. NRF24l01 uses 2.4GHz
transceiver from Nordic semiconductor. The data rate of this module is
256Kbps/1 Mbps/2Mbps.The voltage required is 1.9-3.6V. NRF24L01 is cheaper than
other wireless transmission modules like Zigbee (IEEE 802.14). The transmitter
and receiver modules are connected with arduino boards. The transmitter is
place in the field and the receiver is placed in the system end.The transmitter
and receiver is given a id while configuring it. All the transmitters in the field
should know the receiver’s id which is the destination address. The receiver
will receive data from various transmitters kept in the field. The receiver at
the system end is connected to the web server via Ethernet.
The Ethernet is a IEEE
802.11 standard in computer networks technology for Local Area networks. The
Ethernet is used here because of its low cost while interfacing with arduino
micro-controller and fast connection establishment. When the data from the
transmitter receives the receiver, it sends request to the web server. The
Ethernet cable is connected to the arduino micro-controller using Ethernet
shield for arduino. The arduino Ethernet will be assigned an IP Address which
should be in the range our network. The arduino is given with the address of
the web server to send request. The web server designed using PHP script to insert values in the appropriate table.
The web server processes the request and stores the received data in its database.
Processing and Decision making
The data received from the field are
wirelessly transmitted using NRF24L01 and then saved in web server mysql
database using Ethernet connection at receiver end. Periodically the data are
received and stored in database. The data processing is the task of checking the various sensors data received
from the field with the already fixed threshold values. The threshold values vary according to
the crops planted. This is because different crops need different amounts of
water. For example, in a paddy field to produce 1 kg of rice 5000 liters of
water and for wheat it is liters. Similarly, the temperature and humidity vary
for different crops. The sensor values also vary according to the climatic
conditions. The soil moisture will be different in summer and winter seasons.
The temperature and humidity also vary in summer, winter and rainy season. The
threshold values is fixed after considering all these environmental and
motor will be switched on automatically if the soil moisture value falls below
the threshold and vice versa. The farmer can even switch on the motor from
mobile using mobile application. Automation of Irrigation System
irrigation system is automated once the control received from the web
application or mobile application. The relays are used to pass control from web application to the
electrical switches using Arduino micro-controller. A relay is an electrically
operated switch. The circuits with low power signal can be controlled using
relay. There different types of relays which includes reed relay, solid state
relays, protective relay etc. The relay used here is Solid State Relay (SSR).If
n external voltage is applied across the ends the relay switches on or off the circuit.
The ultrasonic sensor is used to monitor water level
in tanks. The ultrasonic sensors are used to measure distance of the distant
object. The depth of the water level in the tank is calculated to check whether
the water is sufficient or not. The
ultrasonic sensor work based on the piezoelectric method. It has trigger pin
and echo pin. The trigger pin act as transmitter and the echo pin is a
reflector. The trigger pin sends ultrasonic waves once it started functioning.
The ultrasonic waves hit the water and reflected towards the echo pin. The
duration (in seconds) to receive the echo is calculated. 1
IOT is innovative for modern day farming, which changes a traditional farm to an
“Advanced Automated Agriculture”. Also the system could work on
applications of smart phones serving the farmers to regulate and monitor real
time environmental contexts like various weather condition and soil conditions
as well. The intelligent system can decrease labor cost, time, other costs and
it is very helpful for farmers.
In the coming
future, Raspberry Pi Model B should be changed into Raspberry Pi 2 because of
its more effectiveness
server working reduction. All collected farming information should be sent from
the server and stored in a new system. Moreover, a livestock feeding system
should be also developed to make this a more complete system.
This study was supported by the Faculty of
Information Technology, Zeal college of Engineering, Pune.
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