Summaries mainly use hunting, homing, and path building

Summaries and CitationsSound Production in The CockroachSummary:This research paper is about the analysis of how hissing cockroaches communicate using different types of hisses. The mating rituals of the hissing cockroaches were also explored. The courtship behavior of the cockroaches includes the approach, mutual attention, posturing by the male, the female crawling over the male, and then copulation.It was soon to be discovered that there were different frequencies, pitches, and volumes for certain types of hisses. The research also examined how modifying the male’s spiracles affected the way they interacted with other males and possible mates. There are four different types of noises made by the hissing cockroach. One type is the disturbance hiss. This hiss is made whenever the cockroach is disturbed from outside influences. The second type is aggressive hissing. This hiss is made only by the males and is produced when males fight. The third type of hissing is courtship hissing. This hissing is produced during the courting behavior of the cockroaches. The final type of hissing is copulatory hissing. This sound is made 40% of the time when the cockroaches mate.Nelson MC, Fraser J. Sound production in the cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa: evidence for communication by hissing. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 1979 accessed 2018 Jan 30;6(4):305–314.Chaos–order Transition in Foraging Behavior of AntsSummary:This research paper provided information on how the foraging techniques of a colony of ants changed based on if they were by themselves or in a group. They discovered that when these social insects were by themselves, they have very random and erratic travel patterns, but once they are in a group, their movements become patterned. The ants act as if they are of one mind and can follow and remember the patterns of the ants before them. One way they are able to do this is by following the hormones left by previous ants.The ants mainly use hunting, homing, and path building to forage effectively. The advanced ways in which these ants forage demonstrates how intelligent they are and how their age and experience benefit the ants in their foraging techniques. The hunting strategy is where the colony sends out a few ants to search for the food and then report back once they find something. The homing strategy is used once the hunting ants have found a source of food and need to relay this information back to the colony. They use their experience, knowledge of their surroundings, and pheromones to lead themselves and the rest of the scouting ants back to the colony in the most efficient way. The path-building strategy is when the ants have returned home and must create the most efficient path to and from the food source and continuously spreading pheromones in a path. PDF: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6632/7092251e38750385d64d3f2540962789da58.pdf Li L, Peng H, Kurths J, Yang Y, Schellnhuber HJ. Chaos-order transition in foraging behavior of ants. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA. 2014; accessed 2018 Jan 30Sonar-Induced Temporary Hearing Loss in DolphinsSummary: This research paper explores how man-made sonar might be damaging the bottlenose dolphin’s hearing. The researchers experimented on trained dolphins that were used to the noise from previous experiments. The experiment was to expose the dolphins to mid-frequency navy sonar signals, similar to those that would be in the ocean and observed how they reacted to sonar. The results were found that the dolphins did not suffer any hearing loss and they had a slight behavioral change.Mooney, T. A., et al. “Sonar-Induced temporary hearing loss in dolphins.” Biology Letters, vol. 5, no. 4, 8 Apr. 2009, pp. 565–567., doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0099.PDF: http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/roybiolett/5/4/565.full.pdf

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