The 1871(CTA) was revised in 1911 and in

The
nomads of exact number of population is unknown. Because a formal
census has never been conduct of these nomadic communities in India.
However, informal studies indicate that about five hundred endogamous
groups make their home in India. Nomadic communities constitute about
7% of Indian population. The nomadic communities are found in the
state of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu,Gujarat, Karnataka,
Punjab and Haryana ( Malhotra, 1982).

The
De-notified tribe also known as ” vimukta-jati ” according to
Indian criminal tribe act 1871 they were originally listed as a
criminal tribe and the addicted to the systematic commission of
non-bailable offences and Criminal Tribe Act of 1871(CTA) was revised
in 1911 and in the 1924 . The Criminal Tribe Act of 1871 (CTA) 1924
was repealed by the Criminal Tribe Laws under Repeal Act,1952 on the
recommendation of the A. Ayyangar Committee. As a result of the
tribes notified earlier as Criminal Tribe stood Denotified, and name
of De-Notified Tribes’ has been in use for to them, since then
(Rathod 2000). There are 14 De-notified tribes in Maharashtra. They
are follows: 1) Berad, 2) Bestar, 3) Bhamta, 4) Kaikadi 5)
Kankarbhat, 6) Katabu, 7) Lamani, 8) Phase Parddhi 9) Raj-Paradhi,
10) Rajput-Bhamta, 11) Ramoshi, 12) Vadar, 13) Waghari and 14)
Chhapparbandh(Rathod 2000).

About
Pastoralism

Pastoralism
has been practiced by large populations over considerable tracts in
India for the last 3,500 years. Sheep, buffalo, cattle, yak,
goat,camel, pigs, and ducks have all been associated with a variety
of specialist pastoral castes. Yet this vital component of Indian
society has been hardly studied, and practically nothing is known of
the livestock economy of pastoral groups or the ecological conditions
on which it is based (Gadgil ,Malhotra,1982). In India of the
Pastoral nomadic communities also live in Himalya Region.
The
pastoral nomads never settled in one place. They move from one place
to another place in search of water and fodder for their livestock.
The livelihood of the community is totally depending on livestock.
Pastoral nomads migrate often from place to place and their migrating
places are not defined they migrate wherever fodder and water are
available for their livestock. Therefore, there is no defined path of
migration.
The
Dhangar community of Maharashtra
The
Dhangar community which is the nomadic tribe group (NT) is community
of the state of the Maharashtra. It is the considered as a nomadic
pastoral group at the national level (Rupesh Jadhav,2014 TISS). The
name Dhangar is derived by some from thr Sankrit word ” Dhenugar”
meaning cow-keeper, but the etymology seems rather hctitious, for the
Dhangars have never been known to tend cows, sheep. The Dhangars have
no tradition which will throw light upon their origin. In physical
character and customs they resemble the Maratha Kunbis, which
suggests that they are formed form them( Hassan S.)

A
pastoralist group predominantly occurring in Maharashtra are the
Dhangars who are a traditional semi nomadic group. They maintain
large herds of largely sheep along with goats, buffaloes, horses,
dogs and chickens. The men and women share work with relation to
herding, feeding, milking, assisting ewes in labour, taking care of
the animal (Patil , Meena & Tripathi, et. Al 2009).
The
Dhangar is known as a Nomads because Dhangar people are dependent on
cows sheeps, Goats and buffaloes, and for that purpose they wander
for fodder to their animals. In this process the cows encroach on
other people’s land. Dhangar nomads are selling the milk production
to the villagers but they don’t get money from people they only take
grain from customers. These people known as Dhangar, they were mainly
placed in the western part of Maharashtra. The traditional profession
of the Dhangars is to tend to sheep and goats. The Dhangar community
has been divided mainly two major sub caste ,and the first major sub
caste is Hatkar Dhangar and second sub caste Khutekar Dhangar. The
Hatkar Dhangar engages in Shepherding occupation for the purpose of
wool and meats as well as they do farming, services and other
occupation. While the Khutekar Dhangar is depends on the blanket
weaving occupation and they also do the various types other
occupation, such as agriculture, wages, service and other occupation.
sub-castes of the Dhangars given by various scholars are as follows
This Sub caste are most Important in Maharashtra, According to
Enthoven has enlisted the following 22 endogamous groups or
divisions, of the Dhangars. (l) Ahir, (2) Asal-Maratha, 65 (3)
Banaji, (4) Barage, (5) Bande or Methkari,(6) Dange, (7) Gadage, (8)
Gavali, (9) Ghogatunya, (10) Hatkar or Zende, (11) Holkar, (12)
Kangar, (13) Khilari or Thillari, (14) Khutekar or Khute, (15) Lad,
(16) Kuktekar, (17) Mendhe, (18) Mhaske, (19) Sangar, (20) Shegar,
(21) Shilatya Utegar and (22) Musalman (Rathod 2000).
According
to Mr. Shankar Baburao Lande , has given as many as 35 sub-castes of
the Dhangars – (1) Ahir, (2) Asal, (3) Vanuji, (4) Bargeband, or
Medkari (Barage), (5) Dange or Dunge, (6) Gadge, (7) Gavali, (8)
Ghogtunya, (9) Hatkar or Jhendewale, (10) Holkar, (11) Kangar, (12)
Khellari or Thillari, (13) Khilkari, (14) Khutekar or Khute, (15)
Kuketkar, (16) Lad, (17) Mendhe, (18) Mhaske or Mhskar, (19) Sanger
or Sanagar, (20) Shegar, (21) Shikotya, (22) Utegan, (23) Kuche, (24)
Tirumule, (25) Varadi or Borade, (26) Kanore or Kande, (27) Jads,
(28) Landse, (29) Gadre, (30) Telange, (31) Maratha, (32) Mahurai,
(33) Barge, (34) Langote, (35) Vaidu Dhangar(Rathod 2000).

The Dhangar
worship special type of heavenly creatures, including Shiva, Vishnu,
Parvati and Mahalaxmi as their kuldevta. The Khandoba is favourite
god of the caste and is worshipped every Sunday and om Saturday. The
structures fuse Khandoba, Beeralingeswara (Biroba), Mhasoba, Dhuloba
(Dhuleshwar), Vithoba, Siddhanath (Shidoba), Janai-Malai, Tulai,
Yamai, Padubai, and Ambabai (Haokip D 2017).
Population
of Dhangar Community:
There
has been no attempt made by government to find out accurate
population of the Community. The basis of the nomadic community
population lies in the first census carried out in 1931 thereafter
caste bases census was not conducted. However community was excluded
from later conducted censuses, hence authentic population data of the
community is still missing. The some volunteers made an effort to
figure out population of the community. Still, there is no accurate
population and not categorization as per their sub group. Therefore,
it is difficult to know the population of the pastoral communities (
Malhotra, 1982).

Dhangar
community of Satara District:
The
Dhangar caste cluster in Satara District is composed of six
endogamous subcastes, namely (l) Dange (2) Halmat, (3) Hatkar, (4)
Mendhe, (5) Sangar and (6) Sende. They are found more or less all
over the district. According to the Compbell the Dhangar population
in Satara region in the year 1881 was 42,150 or 5.86 percent of the
district’s Hindu population. We have no other record of the Dhangar
population of the district upto the year 1941. According to Dr. P.C.
Patil the Dhangar population of Satara district in 1941 was 3.1
percent of the total Hindu population. He has given Petay Mahal and
Jahagir wise population of the community.

Issue
and problems of Dhangar’s

The
issues like continuous migration, superstitions, child marriages,
illiteracy are resulting in their socio-economic backwardness. So it
is the responsibility of the students, professionals and activists to
identify and discuss various issues at micro and macro level for
their holistic development. By the way responsibility of pay back to
society will inculcate among the students, professionals and
activists. It seems that the Dhangar community earn well but they
are unable to manage their resources for long-term and they are
unable to take decisions for sustainability Because the income
pattern is very important to understand economic condition of the
Dhangar people. But it’s very difficult to understand the actual
income of the Dhangar community. Today most of the Dhangar youth are
prefer to migration in cities. Their income pattern show that most of
the youth were migrant laborer from their native place.

Linkage
of Drought, Livelihood and Dhangar

According
to Allchin (1963) the pastoral nomads are animal herders and
breeders. Pastoral nomads are the people who derive most of their
income or sustenance from keeping domestic livestock. In the
pastoralism activity, community depends on the sheep, goats, cattles
and yaks etc. for their survival and livelihood source. The term
‘livelihood’ includes the capabilities, assets (material and
social resources), and activities for ensuring means of living
(Carney, 1998). The nomadism is a social group with no permanent
habitation or residence (Spooner, 1971). Nomads are an isolated and
neglected part of the Indian society. There is an estimated 30 to 40
million populations of nomads in a world. (Goyal, 2005)
So,according
to Parmeshwar D.Umalea (2015) report, the likely increase in
frequency of droughts will have negative impacts on agriculture,
forestry, and ecosystems (land degradation, crop damage, lower
yields, increased livestock deaths, and increased risk of wildfire);
water resources (more widespread water stress); human health
(increased risk of food and water shortages, malnutrition, and water-
and food-borne diseases); and industry, settlements and society
(water shortages for industry and societies, reduction in hydropower
generation potentials and increased potential for population
migration).
The
shortage of water not only causes implications for the crops but also
others in relation to it such as cattle which relies on it for
fodder. The consequences of a drought are determined by human
interactions and not climate alone (Das et. al., 2007).

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