collection of protocols which supports communication within the network is
simply known as Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). Origin of the TCP/IP had become the
boon to many organizations. It was not so easy that we are getting knowledge on
TCP/IP today. Back in days TCP/IP was only made for the information transferring
to US Department of Defense (DoD) with the name of Advanced Research Projects
Agency (ARPA). “The DoD’s advanced research projects agency created this
ancient network way back in 1957 in a cold war reaction to the soviet’s
launching Sputnik” (Cased, J., 2017). An academic research project which was funded
involving distanced network called packet switched network which later on is called
the early 1970s, the members of ARPA collected the data for exchanging within
the same network. And in 1983 DISA (Defense Information Systems Agency) took
power from the DARPA (Defense Advance Research Projects Agency) and deformation
of ARPAnet and MILnet was done. With the suspension of ARPAnet and MILnet, the
information over the internet and TCP/IP was made the available and knowledge
taking process or research along with U.S. colleges, the corporate; stakeholder
was carried for the betterment of Internet or network (Pyles, Carrell, &
1973, protocol invented by Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn has gone various changes
and finally a name is assigned which is called TCP/IP internet protocol suite,
normally referred as TCP/TP. This suite covers two distinct name which is web
convention (IP) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) for the transmission
and delivering data. Although the work on TCP/IP began in the late 60s the
internet protocol version 4 (IPv4) was only made on late 70s same version that
we using today.
OSI model and its layer with the relation
to TCP/IP Networking model
major work of networking model is to describe how the computer communicates
with one another over a network. Networking model includes the standard seven
layer model which is called network reference model simply reference model but
now popular as open system interconnection (OSI) model. It is the standard of
an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) so the standard model
is sometimes called as ISO/OSI network reference model. Whatever the name be
the basic job of the network model is to describe how a network works from
physical level to application level.
Although TCP/IP is the
older of two approaches of network model and it is accepted all over the world.
But OSI model of networking forms the guideline for all other communication
applications. Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data Link
and Physical layers are the seven layers of OSI model (Pyles, Carrell, &
Application layer: – It is the layer which provides a way for application how a
message is sent, it supports an application for the communication and files
transfer. Thus application layer defines the kinds of service that application
can request from the network and stipulates the data must take when accepting a
Presentation layer: – this layer manages the way of presentation of information
in the knowledgeable form. Thus it translates data to a standard format, this
layer transform data from generic, network-oriented forms or unmanaged form to
known form or platform oriented form or vice-versa.
Session layer: – this layer gives a way to permits senders and receiver to
request that conversation start or stop; it provides checkpoints to maintain
the reliable conversation. “This layer also enables two applications on the
different computer to communicate over the network the phases involved in a
session dialog are as follows establishment, data-transfer, and termination”
(Pyles, Carrell, & Tittel, 2016).
Transport layer: – current layer provides reliable end to end transmission of Protocol
Data Units (PDUs), so correction of transmission and reception of data problem
is handled for the internet by this layer. This layer breaks large packets into
fragment for easy transmission packet completely.
Network layer: – layer responsible for the translation of IP addresses into Mac
addresses. It provides switching and routing for the data to be transfer to
process the fast transaction. This also maintains the connection of various IP
address so that any application can be run at the same time.
Data link layer: – This layer acts as an sandwich between bread of the software
layers and the hardware (physical) layer. It manages to point to point
transmission across the networking medium. It transmits and checks the data
reliability at receiving end (Pyles, Carrell, & Tittel, 2016).
Physical layer: – This is a seen medium. Its job is to maintain,
activate/deactivate network connection it also manages communication with the
network medium going down the protocol stacks. It converts data into the stream
of electric or analog pluses that will actually cross the transmission medium
and oversees the transmission of the data (Cased, 2017).
the OSI model TCP/IP networking model have only 4 layers, application,
transport, internet, network access layer, but the working mechanism is same as
of the OSI model. Application, presentation and session layer of OSI model
comprises of application layer in TCP/IP and data link and physical layers of
OSI model make network layer of TCP/IP.
IP addressing schemes (Version 4
and Version 6)
the IP address is a number given to the entire equipment works on computer networking.
This also gives the address of that system. This unique identity is written as
a string of numbers separated by periods. An IP address is a logical address
not a hardware address or MAC address hardware address is kept on the network
interface card (NIC) and used for locating the machine on any network. The IP
address is made to allow equipments to communicate on any network. Most addresses are in IPv4 as it is widely
used till the date, but we also have IP address in IPv6 which are described later
is a 32-bit address made up of only ones and zeros which we call as binary
numbers. Each part of this address is called an octet as it is composed of 8
binary digits as 01000101.10001001.00101101.11111010. To make the IP address
easy they are written as four decimal numerical separated by periods which can
be assigned from 0 to 255, For example, IP address of my computer is
188.8.131.52. (Pyles, Carrell, & Tittel, 2016). All the address are
assigned to five major classes and IP addresses are divided in two parts
network address and host address.
Class A address: the first octet i.e. 8 bits only contains the network portion
and rest of the host ID
Class B address: the first 2 octets i.e. 16 bits only contains the network
portion and rest of the host ID
Class C address: the first 3 octets i.e. 24 bits only contains the network
portion and rest of the host ID
And 5. Class D address and Class E address is used as the multicast address and
scientific purposes respectively.
32-bit address mentions about 4 billion addresses but 4 billion are already
consumed so new version called IPv6 is formed to provide more rooms of IP
addresses to upcoming market of the internet. (Cased, 2017)
addresses are 128 bits long. It is expressed using eight blocks of four
hexadecimal digits. IPv6 uses a group of four 16-bit numbers called words and
are separated by a colon
(Pyles, Carrell, & Tittel, 2016). IPv6 address of my computer is
2601:14d:4300:3be9:977:f2df:ef46:a883. There are many more addresses in IPv6
that it can withstand the current and future needs of address to any demand.
Literally, there is more address in IPv6 than the atoms on the surface of the
Reasons for the need for IP version
Internet is the fastest growing industry nowadays so the world is running out of
addresses in IPv4. By the end of 2015, no any addresses are left behind.
Although many of these 4 billion addresses are actually unused, they are
already allocated, so to withstand this problem IPv6 is evolved or made. The
major reasons of the IPv6 are:-
More addresses than IPv4:- IPv4’s 32-bit address mentions about 4 billion
addresses, but IPv6’s 128-bit address accompanied by 2128 addresses
which more than the atom of the surface in the earth. It also eliminates the
need for NAT
It provides addresses auto-configuration, and better support to the anycast
addressing for the best and shortest route to reach the destination so helps in
video conference, live chat, etc
Ipv6 has greater flow labeling than the IPv4 so in minimal service of transmission.
IPv6 is built on mobile IP and natively support mobility
IPv6 supports network security by using authentication and encryption extension
IPv6 is created in 1996 yet very few companies have implemented it completely,
because of the long working history of IPv4, and lack of complete IPv6 system
in the market (Cased, 2017).
analysis is the process of examining the procedure that is used to regulate the
data transmission between computers in any networks. Protocol analysis deals
with gathering or decoding the data packets transferring from one device to
another device. The person who works in this field is called protocol analyst
and they should know how to utilize hardware and software tools to get the
correct information through analysis (Protocol Analysis, 2017). The program or a device on which
protocol analysis depends is known as protocol analyzer. The best-known
protocol analyzer is Wireshark, which is free and available at www.wireshark.org.
It is used for network troubleshooting, analysis, software and communication
protocol development and education (Wireshark, 2017).