The However, a relatively limited vase life reduces

The Chrysanthemum was first cultivated in China
as early as the 15th century BC. These well-rounded flowers come
from the Greek word chrys (gold) and anthemum (flower) which means golden
flower. Historically, chrysanthemums were primarily yellow flowers, which stand
for happiness and health, (Steinbeck,
2011, Kofranek, 1992.). (Kitamura cv. Pattriot) Chrysanthemum is one of the most important
and marketable cut flowers in the world. However, a relatively limited vase
life reduces its marketability. In cut flowers, hydraulic properties and
dimensions of xylem vessels in the stem directly influence vase-life and thus
post-harvest quality. Xylem hydraulic conductance as well as recovery from air
embolisms (Van, et.al. 1997 &
2002) and Senescence of cut flowers is induced by water stress,
carbohydrate decline, bacterial contamination and etc.

One
of the major causes of deterioration in the cut flowers is the blockage of
xylem vessels by air and microorganisms that cause xylem occlusion. The most
adverse effect on cut flowers is caused by ethylene, showing its deleterious
effects, e.g. Leaf yellowing into flower (or petal) drop, irregular opening and
premature death (Nowak and Rudnicki, 1990).  

Many studies have correlated in the
present of bacterial cell numbers increase in vase water with reduced cut
flower vase life (van Doom et al.,
1989); Put, 1990). Physically block the cut flower stem (Put and Klop, 1990),
produce enzymes which break down walls of conducting xylem vessels (Burdett, 1970),
produce ethylene or induce its production in the flower and thus accelerate
deterioration (Zagory and Reid, 1986), or produce toxic metabolites
(Accati-Garibaldi, 1983).

6

A wide range of flower preservatives in
the form of germicides, ethylene antagonistics and source of energy (sucrose)
are in use to preserve the quality and post harvest longevity of cut flowers. Preservatives
variety and temperature treatments have been advocated for extending the vase
life of cut flowers of different varieties according to Park, et.al. (2000)

 

Present
Situation of Cut Flower Production

 

Cut flowers are grown throughout the
Philippines but the industry was originally confined only to a few, small
growers. An increased demand triggered more production but despite the larger
area devoted to cut flower; there is still a short fall in the supply, mainly chrysanthemum and orchids
for the domestic market is
so big that the country has no option but import some cut flowers from other
countries. This is strongly evident during Valentine’s Day (Feb. 14),
All Saints Day (Nov. 1), School Graduation (March and April), Flower Festivals
(May), and Yuletide Seasons (December) according to Teresita L. Rosario, et.al. (1991– 2000).

 

7

Hydration Solutions

According to Terril A. Nell, Ph.D., AAF, – Society of American
Florists’ (SAF), these solutions are used primarily by
growers, wholesalers and bouquet-makers to assure that flowers contain high
levels of water prior to shipping to retail customers and consumers. They
contain biocides to control microbial activity in the solution and stem, a
buffer to lower the solution pH and a wetting agent to accelerate water uptake.
In many instances, wholesale florists use hydration solutions as part of a
two-step program—hydration solution for one to two hours followed by a flower
food until the flowers are sold because hydration solutions do not contain any
nutrients.

 

Flower Food

Flowers
are harvested when fully developed to ensure a long postharvest life and to
minimize mechanical damages that might occur during handling. The development
of these flower buds requires food, which is stored in the leaves and stems.
When the stored carbohydrates are low, leaves and flowers senesce rapidly and
petals that develop at low sugar levels have pale colors. Under these
situations, supplements can be provided to the flowers by adding Molasses as
sugar to the vase solutions. The optimum
concentration of sugar varies significantly depending on the flowers being
treated. Most flowers
benefit from a continuous supply of 2% sugar in the vase solution, such as Gladioli
4 to 6 % sugar solution, Zinnias and Coralbells, sustain damage when treated
with concentrations of sugars higher than 1%, and also Chrysanthemums and China
Asters, do well (Prince, TA et.al. 1988).

  8

The postharvest life of cut Eustoma a grandiflorum flower is limited by poor bud opening
and bent neck in open flowers. Vase solutions containing up to 6% sucrose or glucose improved the
quality and vase life of the flowers. Carbohydrate improved petal color,
increased bud opening, strengthened pedicels, and extended overall
inflorescence longevity of cut flower. Presence of sugar in the vase solution
greatly increased the concentration of sugars in the flower structure of buds
and open flowers. Eustoma flowers are affected by exposure to ethylene
and pre-treatment with 1-MCP or STS delays final senescence of flowers that
have been held in solutions containing sugar.

One of the advantages of cut
flower is that, after harvesting, glucose can be supplied in the vase solution
to improve the quality and post harvest life of many species (Halevy &
Mayak, 1979). Flower food solutions were developed to help
retailers and consumers increase the vase life and opening of their flowers.
These products contain all the essential ingredients of hydration solutions
with the addition of sugar.

Preservative
Solution

            Commercial preservative will increase the life cut flowers;
acidifier, inhibitor of microorganisms and a respiratory inhibitor. Insures continued development
and longevity of the flower sucrose serves as a source of energy to make up for
the loss of the functioning leaves. An acidifier makes the pH of the water nearer
the acid pH of the cell sap.

9

A preservative
solution that is critical for the handling of field-grown cut flowers used to
lower the pH is citric acid. It has been shown that low pH water (pH=3.5)
travels faster in the water-conducting system (xylem), thereby preventing and
reducing wilting that frequently occurs in field-grown flowers.

On the other hand, 1 – MCP
(1-methylcyclopropene) an ethylene receptor inhibitor, is gaseous at room
temperature, with a non-toxic, irreversible effect, and the effective
concentration is low, efficient, and environmentally friendly and it also has
low cost advantages. In foreign countries, it is applied to fruits and
vegetables and other horticultural products and ethylene-sensitive Phalaenopsis
flowers postpartum preservation, although the flowers tendered on application
start, but it has been confirmed, 1-MCP on postpartum keeping with good business
prospects (ZhouCaiLian,
2007). The use of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)
gas is released from a powder upon wetting. The gas permeates through all stem
and flower tissues to inhibit the damaging effects of ethylene (Serek, et.al., 1994). The use of this
solution should be used by growers to ensure that flowers are protected
immediately after harvest with 1-MCP by the importers or bouquet-makers on the
transport trucks (Floral Endowment AFE).

In addition, Chrysal flower food was
introduced in the market in 1949; it caused a revolution in the floral
industry, being the first professional cut flower food ever invented. The use
of Chrysal flower food extends the life span of cut flowers enormoThe Chrysanthemum was first cultivated in China
as early as the 15th century BC. These well-rounded flowers come
from the Greek word chrys (gold) and anthemum (flower) which means golden
flower. Historically, chrysanthemums were primarily yellow flowers, which stand
for happiness and health, (Steinbeck,
2011, Kofranek, 1992.). (Kitamura cv. Pattriot) Chrysanthemum is one of the most important
and marketable cut flowers in the world. However, a relatively limited vase
life reduces its marketability. In cut flowers, hydraulic properties and
dimensions of xylem vessels in the stem directly influence vase-life and thus
post-harvest quality. Xylem hydraulic conductance as well as recovery from air
embolisms (Van, et.al. 1997 &
2002) and Senescence of cut flowers is induced by water stress,
carbohydrate decline, bacterial contamination and etc.

One
of the major causes of deterioration in the cut flowers is the blockage of
xylem vessels by air and microorganisms that cause xylem occlusion. The most
adverse effect on cut flowers is caused by ethylene, showing its deleterious
effects, e.g. Leaf yellowing into flower (or petal) drop, irregular opening and
premature death (Nowak and Rudnicki, 1990).  

Many studies have correlated in the
present of bacterial cell numbers increase in vase water with reduced cut
flower vase life (van Doom et al.,
1989); Put, 1990). Physically block the cut flower stem (Put and Klop, 1990),
produce enzymes which break down walls of conducting xylem vessels (Burdett, 1970),
produce ethylene or induce its production in the flower and thus accelerate
deterioration (Zagory and Reid, 1986), or produce toxic metabolites
(Accati-Garibaldi, 1983).

6

A wide range of flower preservatives in
the form of germicides, ethylene antagonistics and source of energy (sucrose)
are in use to preserve the quality and post harvest longevity of cut flowers. Preservatives
variety and temperature treatments have been advocated for extending the vase
life of cut flowers of different varieties according to Park, et.al. (2000)

 

Present
Situation of Cut Flower Production

 

Cut flowers are grown throughout the
Philippines but the industry was originally confined only to a few, small
growers. An increased demand triggered more production but despite the larger
area devoted to cut flower; there is still a short fall in the supply, mainly chrysanthemum and orchids
for the domestic market is
so big that the country has no option but import some cut flowers from other
countries. This is strongly evident during Valentine’s Day (Feb. 14),
All Saints Day (Nov. 1), School Graduation (March and April), Flower Festivals
(May), and Yuletide Seasons (December) according to Teresita L. Rosario, et.al. (1991– 2000).

 

7

Hydration Solutions

According to Terril A. Nell, Ph.D., AAF, – Society of American
Florists’ (SAF), these solutions are used primarily by
growers, wholesalers and bouquet-makers to assure that flowers contain high
levels of water prior to shipping to retail customers and consumers. They
contain biocides to control microbial activity in the solution and stem, a
buffer to lower the solution pH and a wetting agent to accelerate water uptake.
In many instances, wholesale florists use hydration solutions as part of a
two-step program—hydration solution for one to two hours followed by a flower
food until the flowers are sold because hydration solutions do not contain any
nutrients.

 

Flower Food

Flowers
are harvested when fully developed to ensure a long postharvest life and to
minimize mechanical damages that might occur during handling. The development
of these flower buds requires food, which is stored in the leaves and stems.
When the stored carbohydrates are low, leaves and flowers senesce rapidly and
petals that develop at low sugar levels have pale colors. Under these
situations, supplements can be provided to the flowers by adding Molasses as
sugar to the vase solutions. The optimum
concentration of sugar varies significantly depending on the flowers being
treated. Most flowers
benefit from a continuous supply of 2% sugar in the vase solution, such as Gladioli
4 to 6 % sugar solution, Zinnias and Coralbells, sustain damage when treated
with concentrations of sugars higher than 1%, and also Chrysanthemums and China
Asters, do well (Prince, TA et.al. 1988).

  8

The postharvest life of cut Eustoma a grandiflorum flower is limited by poor bud opening
and bent neck in open flowers. Vase solutions containing up to 6% sucrose or glucose improved the
quality and vase life of the flowers. Carbohydrate improved petal color,
increased bud opening, strengthened pedicels, and extended overall
inflorescence longevity of cut flower. Presence of sugar in the vase solution
greatly increased the concentration of sugars in the flower structure of buds
and open flowers. Eustoma flowers are affected by exposure to ethylene
and pre-treatment with 1-MCP or STS delays final senescence of flowers that
have been held in solutions containing sugar.

One of the advantages of cut
flower is that, after harvesting, glucose can be supplied in the vase solution
to improve the quality and post harvest life of many species (Halevy &
Mayak, 1979). Flower food solutions were developed to help
retailers and consumers increase the vase life and opening of their flowers.
These products contain all the essential ingredients of hydration solutions
with the addition of sugar.

Preservative
Solution

            Commercial preservative will increase the life cut flowers;
acidifier, inhibitor of microorganisms and a respiratory inhibitor. Insures continued development
and longevity of the flower sucrose serves as a source of energy to make up for
the loss of the functioning leaves. An acidifier makes the pH of the water nearer
the acid pH of the cell sap.

9

A preservative
solution that is critical for the handling of field-grown cut flowers used to
lower the pH is citric acid. It has been shown that low pH water (pH=3.5)
travels faster in the water-conducting system (xylem), thereby preventing and
reducing wilting that frequently occurs in field-grown flowers.

On the other hand, 1 – MCP
(1-methylcyclopropene) an ethylene receptor inhibitor, is gaseous at room
temperature, with a non-toxic, irreversible effect, and the effective
concentration is low, efficient, and environmentally friendly and it also has
low cost advantages. In foreign countries, it is applied to fruits and
vegetables and other horticultural products and ethylene-sensitive Phalaenopsis
flowers postpartum preservation, although the flowers tendered on application
start, but it has been confirmed, 1-MCP on postpartum keeping with good business
prospects (ZhouCaiLian,
2007). The use of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)
gas is released from a powder upon wetting. The gas permeates through all stem
and flower tissues to inhibit the damaging effects of ethylene (Serek, et.al., 1994). The use of this
solution should be used by growers to ensure that flowers are protected
immediately after harvest with 1-MCP by the importers or bouquet-makers on the
transport trucks (Floral Endowment AFE).

In addition, Chrysal flower food was
introduced in the market in 1949; it caused a revolution in the floral
industry, being the first professional cut flower food ever invented. The use
of Chrysal flower food extends the life span of cut flowers enormously. In some
cases the life span even doubles (Joep
Wlegel, 2012). Improves vase life by an average of 75% vs. water alone, retains
bloom color, intensity and keeps stems firm and green introduced IFTF, (2014).usly. In some
cases the life span even doubles (Joep
Wlegel, 2012). Improves vase life by an average of 75% vs. water alone, retains
bloom color, intensity and keeps stems firm and green introduced IFTF, (2014).

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