“The Promise of Sleep: Adequate shut-eye is good for your brain. Our experts explain why and how to get the amount of sleep you need”, by Hallie Levine is an article that discusses the importance of sleep in relation to the biological fields and cognitive fields of psychology. The research was conducted in February and March 2017 at John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore. This research found that sleep is important for your brain and body. Not enough sleep can affect your brain’s health and your brain function. It also affects your everyday health and people who sleep less than what’s recommended have a higher chance of getting sick. The goal of the article is show people how to get the amount of sleep needed to function properly and stay healthy and to also show people why it is important to get a good night sleep regularly. Through this research, results found that while we sleep our brain works to move information in our short term memory to our long term memory. Research shows that there are electrical waze patterns that occur all through the brain. These waves are said to help the brain encode the information and experience we learn in a day and strengthen our memory. These waves occur mostly during sleep. Sleep strengthens memory and allows the brain not to forget it more easily. Another positive thing sleep provides is that it helps eliminate toxins. When people sleep, the Glymphatic system works to eliminate toxins in the brain. The toxins are drowned out when the Glymphatic system releases Cerebrospinal Fluid. Research showed that more fluid was released when people were sleeping rather than when they were awake. Through this research, sleep deprivation has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease. Another study showed that age has a big impact on sleep. Studies show that as you age, the more your sleep process changes. When you get older, you have more likely of a chance of having sleep apnea or insomnia. These conditions have a high likelihood of developing other fatal conditions. Snoring has also been linked to receiving low levels of oxygen through the night and can lead to a higher risk of a stroke.Studies show that people with neurological conditions have changes in their sleep processes. Research also shows that less sleep and can people more sensitive to pain. The researchers that took part in these studies came up with solutions on how to get better sleep. First they recommend making your bed. Next is to work out when you wake up. Next if to stop drinking caffeine in the afternoon. Next is to avoid eating a heavy meal for dinner. Next, to avoid using electronics before you go to sleep. After that to lower the temperature in your bedroom so you don’t become restless. Lastly they recommend turning on a fan or any machine that can create white noise. My opinion was that this article was very insightful. As a person who often does not get as much sleep as one should, this article really opened up my eyes. The article was very well written. It compared advantages and disadvantages that sleep provides people and then game people tips to improve their sleeping habits for a healthier sleep. This article is for people that have trouble sleeping or struggle from brain conditions that hinder a person’s sleep. I believe that this article successfully reached the audience it was intending to reach because it shows people the results of the research they conducted and tells people how to improve with this sleep. I have experienced some of the suggestions this article has offered before without even realizing it. A couple months ago, I lowered the temperature in my room so when i would get under the covers I would not get too hot and be more comfortable in be and it has helped me a lot. I am able to sleep more sound. Also, Last year my dad told me that I should make my bed every morning so i would have a sense of accomplishment and i would have done one thing in the day so far. I did not do this at first but once i started doing it my frame of mind and sleep both improved.”Sleep restrictions in rats leads to changes in operant behavior indicative of reduced prefrontal cortex functions”, by Jeanine Karnphuis, Swetlana Baichel, Marike Lancel, Sietse F. de Boer, Jaap M. Koolhaas, and Peter Meerlo is an article that tests how sleep deprivation affects your brain and body functions in the behavioral and cognitive fields of psychology. This research was conducted in September 2016 at the University of Groningen. It shows that lack of sleep can have many negative effects on the brain including stunting cognitive functions on the brain. The research conducted was to find a correlation between how sleep affects operant behavior and cognitive function to how this may impact the function of the prefrontal cortex. This test was performed on rats.In these experiments, the researchers performed ‘Differential reinforcement of low rate-responding, or just D.R.L. This test is able to test the rats in many brain functions at once. In this experiment the rats were trained to pull a lever and hold it for 30 seconds. After the rats were able to perform this task consistently multiple times, they were then deprived from sleep. After this they had the rats perform the same test. The results showed that the rats that were sleep deprived had a harder time remembering the process and remembering the time the lever had to be pushed down for. My opinion was that the article showed great results on the effects of sleep deprivation. It provided very clear evidence that sleep deprivation affects your brain’s ability to remember and your body functions. The target audience was people who do not sleep enough and claim that its not a big deal. The article successfully reached this audience providing results of the negative effects caused by sleep deprivation. In the experiment it clearly shows the fatigue, impairment and poor decisions made by the rats that were sleep deprived and how this negatively affected the rats every day functions even after mastering a specific process in order to get food.