The the natural clarification that the sun turns

The
History of Physics

            There
have been many contributors to physics throughout history. Physics is also
defined as the branch of science concerned with the nature and properties of
energy and matter. Physics, before the 19th century was also known
as “Natural Philosophy”. Natural Philosophy’s history dates to the mid 600 BCE
when Socratic philosophers were curious about how the universe and world works.
During the mid-600 to 700 BCE, a man named Tales of Miletus believed that
everything happens because of a natural cause, not because of myths or
religion. He was also known as the “The Father of Science” since science is
more of a rational understanding of nature rather than a religious or
mythological explanation. However even before his time, during late 200 BCE to mid-400
BCE, many philosophers have already contemplated ideas of physics. Some of
these philosophers include: Democritus, Epicurus, and Aristarchus of Samos. There
were many people responsible for the advancement of Physics. Some include
William Gilbert, Galileo, Evangelista Torricelli, Von Guericke, Robert Boyle, and
the famous two: Aristotle and Isaac Newton.

            Thales
was the first physicist and his theories gave the discipline its name. He was regarded
to the be the first physicists or philosopher by many others such as Aristotle.
He believed that the world, although fashioned from many materials, was really
built of only one element, water. The interaction of water between the three phases
of solid, liquid and gas gave materials different characteristics. This was the
first explanation to take natural phenomena out of the realm of divine
providence and into the realm of natural laws and explanations. In terms of
other contributions, he also made significant contributions to mathematics. He used
what we call now, geometry to calculate the size of pyramids and the distances
of ships from the shoreline.

            Before
Thales, few of the persuasive Greek thinkers during the mid-200 to mid-400 BCE
period were Leucippus, Democritus, and Epicurus, whom set forward the
possibility that matter consisted of atoms and various objects consists of a
different combination of these atoms. Another rationalist was Aristarchus of
Samos (310-230 B.C.) who was the principal individual known to have suggested
that the earth rotates once every year around the sun, as opposed to the
natural clarification that the sun turns around the earth. He additionally wanted
to compute relative sizes for the earth, moon and sun. During this time
however, it was not viewed as important by the Greeks to test such theories; most
of them were searching for was a clarification of the world in view of few
philosophical standards.

The Greeks spent much
effort wondering about the development of the sun, moon, planets and stars.
Since this development moreover expected an important part in the change of
present day science, it justifies discussing in some detail. The stars are so
distant from us that their relative movements can’t be seen except for over
timescales of a couple of hundreds of years. Subsequently, to an eyewitness on
earth, the stars give off an impression of being settled in an immense circle,
concentric with the earth. This circle rotates at consistent speed about the earth
at a rate of only more than once in twenty-four hours, coming back to nearly a
similar position at a given time of day once consistently. Correspondingly, the
sun and moon seem to lie on circles, which rotate about the earth once every
day and once every 27 days, separately. The movements of the planets seemed
very confusing to a natural eyewitness. We now realize that the planets are all
on circles with individual separations from the sun, and orbital periods that were
longer the more distant the planet is from the sun. For instance, Venus,
Earth’s closest and brightest planetary neighbor, has a time of 225 days,
contrasted with Earth’s 365. This implies as Venus influences its yearly
journey during that time to sky as saw from Earth, it at times moves in reverse
with respect to the settled stars, in “retrograde movement”, as its
circle conveys it inverse to the heading the earth is moving.

Aristotle is generally
credited with providing the most comprehensive of such explanations. He
believed that there were four unique elements: earth, water, air and fire. Each
had its natural place determined by its weight. Earth, being the heaviest, wanted
to be at the center of the universe. Water was above the earth, with air above
water, and then fire. This order makes much sense. Solid (“earthy”)
bodies sink in water; if you release air under water the air bubbles to the
surface; and flames leap upward during burning. The farther a body was from the
earth, the more perfect it became. Hence the moon was the least perfect of the
heavenly bodies, as could be seen by its uneven appearance, while the fixed
stars were the most perfect of all, and were composed of a fifth element (the
“quintessence”) which had no weight at all.

Interestingly certainly
contributed to the history of science with his methodology and empiricism, he hindered
the progress of physics for many millennia. He made the fatal error of if
mathematical theory and the natural world did not overlap, a sign of his
overreliance upon empiricism. Aristotle attempted to explain ideas such as
motion and gravity with his theory of elements, an addition to ancient physics
that also spread into alchemy and medicine.

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